Saturday, August 6, 2011

Complete Textile Glossery (C to D)

Learn Apparel Merchandising, Learn Fashion design.
CABINET: A basic part of the manufactured-fiber spinning machine where, in dry spinning, the
filaments become solidified by solvent evaporation and, in melt spinning, the filaments are
solidified by cooling.
CABLED YARN: A yarn formed by twisting together two or more plied yarns.
CABLE STITCH: A knit effect produced by crossing a group of stitches over a neighboring
stitch group.
CABLE TWIST: A construction of thread, yarn, cord, or rope in which
each successive twist is in the direction opposite the preceding twists;
i.e., and S/Z/S or Z/S/Z construction.
CALENDER: A machine used in finishing to impart a variety of surface
effects to fabrics. A calender essentially consists of two or more heavy
rollers, sometimes heated, through which the fabric passes under heavy
CALENDERING: A mechanical finishing process for fabrics to produce special effects, such as
high luster, glazing, moiré, and embossed effects. In this operation, the fabric is passed between
heated rolls under pressure.
CALENDERING ROLLS: 1. The main cylinders on a calender. 2.
Smooth or fluted rolls used on carious fiber-processing machines such as
pickers and cards to compress the lap or sliver as it passes between them.
CALICO: A plain, closely woven, inexpensive cloth, usually cotton or a
cotton/manufactured fiber blend, characteristically having figured
patterns on a white or contrasting background. Calico is typically used
for aprons, dresses, and quilts.
CALORIMETRY: The process of measuring quantities of absorbed or evolved heat, often used
to determine specific heat.
CAM: A rotating or sliding piece or projection used to impart timed or periodic motion to other
parts of a machine. It is used chiefly as a controlling or timing element in machines rather than as
part of a power transmission mechanism. Cams are particularly important in both knitting and
weaving machinery.
CAMBRIC: A soft, white, closely woven, cotton or cotton blend fabric that has been calendered
on the right side to give it a slight gloss. Cambric is used extensively for handkerchiefs.
CAN: 1. A cylindrical container, about 3 feet high and 10 to 12 inches in diameter, that is used to
collect sliver delivered by a card, drawing frame, etc. 2. See DRYING CYLINDERS.

CANDLE FILTER: A small filter interposed between the spinning pump and spinning jet to
effect final filtration of the spinning solution prior to extrusion.
CANDLE WATER TEMPERATURE: The temperature of the water surrounding the candle
filter or within the heating jacket during fiber extrusion.
CANDLEWICK FABRIC: An unbleached muslin base fabric used to produce a chenille-like
fabric by applying candlewick (heavy-plied yarn) loops and cutting the loops to give a fuzzy
CANTON FLANNEL: A heavy cotton or cotton blend material with a twilled face and a napped
back. The fabric’s strength, warmth, and absorbance make it ideal for interlinings and sleeping
CAPACITANCE: The measure of the ability of a nonconductor to store electrical energy by
means of the potential difference across the surfaces of the nonconductor.
CAPROLACTAM: A white, crystalline, cyclic amide (C6H11NO) which yields å-amino-caproic
acid on hydrolysis and is used as a raw material in the manufacture of nylon 6.
CAP SPINNING: A system of spinning employing a stationary,
highly polished metal cap just large enough to fit over the take-up
bobbin, which revolves at a high rate of speed. The cap controls the
build and imparts sufficient tension to the yarn for winding. The yarn
is twisted and wound onto packages simultaneously.
CARBON-ARC LAMP: A type of fading lamp which utilizes an arc
between two carbon electrodes as the source of radiation.
CARBON FIBER: A high-tensile fiber or whisker made by heating
rayon or polyacrylonitrile fibers or petroleum residues to appropriate
temperatures. Fibers may be 7 to 8 microns in diameter and are more
that 90% carbonized.
CARBONIZING: A chemical process for eliminating cellulosic material from wool or other
animal fibers. The material is reacted with sulfuric acid or hydrogen chloride gas followed by
heating. When the material is dry, the carbonized cellulose material is dust-like and can be
CARBOXYL END GROUP: The chain-terminating (-COOH) group found in polyamide and
polyester polymers.
CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULOSE: An acid ether derivative of cellulose formed by the
reaction of alkali cellulose with chloroacetic acid. The sodium salt of this compound is
commonly used as a stabilizer or an emulsifier.
CARD: A machine used in the manufacture of staple yards. Its functions are to separate, align,
and deliver the fibers in a sliver form and to remove impurities. The machine consists of a series

of rolls, the surfaces of which are covered with many projecting wired or metal teeth. Short
staple systems employ flat strips covered with card clothing rather that small rolls. (Also see
CARD CLOTHING: The material used to cover the working surfaces of the card, i.e., cylinder
and rolls or flats. The clothing consists of either wire teeth set in a foundation fabric or rubber, or
narrow serrated metal flutes which are spirally arranged around the roll. The metallic wire has
the appearance of band-saw blade.
CARD CONVERSION EFFICIENCY: The efficiency of the carding process, expressed as a
percentage obtained from ratio of sliver output to staple input.
CARDED YARN: A cotton yarn that has been carded but not combed. Carded yarns contain a
wider range of fiber lengths and, as a result, are not as uniform or as strong as combed yarns.
They are considerably cheaper and are used in medium and course counts.
CARDIGAN: 1. A modification of the rib-knitting stitch to allow tucking on one (half cardigan)
or both(full cardigan) sets of needles. 2. A sweater that buttons down the front.
CARDING: A process in the manufacture of spun yarns whereby the staple is opened, cleaned,
aligned, and formed into a continuous, untwisted strand called a sliver.
CARE LABEL: The label that gives directions for cleaning, ironing, and otherwise maintaining
a fabric of fiber product.
CARPET BACKING: A primary backing through which the carpet tufts are inserted is always
required for tufted carpets. The backing is usually made of woven jute or nonwoven
manufactured fiber fabrics. A secondary backing, again made of jute or manufactured fibers, is
normally added at the latex backcoating stage. Carpet backings are an important end use for
nonwoven fabrics.
CARPETS: Heavy functional and ornamental floor coverings consisting of pile yarns or fibers
and a backing system. They may be tufted or woven. (Also see TUFTED CARPET.)
CARPET UNDERLAY: A separate fabric which is used to provide cushioning for carpet.
Carpet underlays are made of hair and jute, sponge rubber, bonded urethane or foamed urethane.
CARRIER: 1. A product added to a dyebath to promote the dyeing of hydrophobic manufactured
fibers and characterized by affinity for, and ability to swell, the fiber. 2. A moving holder for a
package of yarn used on a braiding machine. 3. A term sometimes used to describe the tube or
bobbin on which yarn is wound.
CARRIERLESS DYEING VARIANTS: Polymers that have been modified to increase their
dyeability. Fibers and fabrics made from these polymers can be dyed at the boil without the use
of carriers.
CASEMENT CLOTH: A general term applied to lightweight, sheer fabrics used for curtains
and for screening purposes and as a backing for heavy drapery fabrics of the decorative type.
This type of fabric is sometimes made in small fancy weaves for dresswear.

CASHMERE: The extremely soft hair of the Cashmere goat. Cashmere is often blended with
sheep’s wool in fabrics.
CATALYST: A chemical that accelerates a reaction. The catalyst is not part of the reaction but
increases the rate at which it takes place.
CATERPILLAR: A large slub formed in a combination or plied yarn as a result of one of the
ends breaking and sliding or skinning back along the other yarn.
CATION: A positively charged ion.
CATIONIC DYEABLE VARIANTS: Polymers modified chemically to make them receptive to
cationic dyes.
CAUSTIC SODA: The common name for sodium hydroxide.
CALAVRY TWILL: A pronounced, raised cord on a 63-degree twill weave characterizes this
rugged cloth usually made from wool or wool blend yarns.
CELLOPHANE: A generic term for regenerated cellulose film, which is used primarily for
packaging. The film is transparent and may be dyed in many colors or coated to render it
moisture proof or heat-sealable.
CELLULOSE: A carbohydrate which is the chief component of the cell walls of plants.
Cellulose is found in wood and in cotton, linen, jute, hemp, and all of the bast, leaf, and stem
fibers. It is a basic raw material in the manufacture of rayon, acetate, and triacetate fibers.
CELLULOSIC FIBER: A fiber composed of, or derived from, cellulose. Examples are cotton
(cellulose), rayon (regenerated cellulose), acetate (cellulose acetate), and triacetate (cellulose
CENTRIFUGE: A machine that employs centrifugal force to remove excess liquid from fabrics.
In general, centrifuges are also used to separate materials of different densities.

CERAMIC FIBER: An aluminum silicate fiber made by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-
1200°C with silica and water vapor. The crystals, or “whiskers,” obtained are up to 1 cm long
and have high strength. Ceramic fibers are used in reinforced plastics.
CHAFED END: A warp end that has been abraded during processing. It generally appears as a
dull yarn often containing broken filaments.
CHAFER FABRIC: A fabric, coated with unvulcanized rubber, that is wrapped around the bead
section of the tire before vulcanization of the complete tire. The purpose of the chafer fabric is to
maintain an abrasion-resistant later of rubber in contact with the wheel on which the tire is
CHAIN BINDERS: Yarns running in the warp direction on the back of a woven carpet which
hold construction yarns together.
CHALKINESS: 1. A dull, whitened appearance sometimes associated with certain extra-dull
colors. 2. A fillingwise fabric defect observed as bands varying luster or sheen.
CHALLIS: A very soft, lightweight, plain-weave fabric, usually printed with a delicate floral
pattern. The name is derived from the Anglo-Indian term “shalee” meaning soft.
CHAMBRAY: 1. A plain woven-spun fabric, almost square (i.e., 80 x 76), with a colored warp
and a white filling. Lightweight chambrays are used for shirts, dresses, and children’s clothes. 2.
A similar but heavier fabric of carded yam, used for work clothing.
CHAMELEON: A variable multicolored effect achieved by using warp yarns of one color and
two filling yarns of different colors in each shed. It is sometimes used in taffeta, faille, or poplin
made from silk or manufactured filament yarns.
CHANGE INLINGTH ON UNTWISTING: The increase or decrease in length measured when
a specimen is untwisted. The change is expressed as the percentage extension or contraction of
the nominal gauge length of the specimen, i.e., specimen length prior to untwisting.
CHAR LENGTH: In flammability testing, the distance from the edge of the sample exposed to
the flame to the upper edge of the charred or void area.
CHEESE: A cylindrical package of yarn wound on a flangeless tube.
CHEESECLOTH: A low-count, plain weave, soft cotton or cotton blend cloth also known as
CHELATING AGENT: A compound that will inactivate a metallic ion by making it an integral
part of an inner ring structure. The metal is attached by coordinate links to two or more nonmetal
atoms in the same molecule.

CHEMICAL CRIMPING: A crinkled or puckered effect in fabric obtained by printing sodium
hydroxide onto the goods in a planned design. When the material is washed, the part to which the
paste has been applied will shrink and cause untreated areas to pucker. The same effect is
obtained with a caustic resist print and a sodium hydroxide bath.
CHEMICAL FINISHING: Processes in which additives are applied to change the aesthetic and
functional properties of a material. Examples are the application of antioxidants, flameretardant,
wetting agents, and stain and water repellents.
CHEMICAL STABILITY: Degree of resistance of a material to chemicals, such as acids, bases,
solvents, oils, and oxidizing agents, and to chemical reactions, including those catalyzed by light.
CHENILLE: 1. A yarn with a fuzzy pile protruding from all sides, cut from a woven chenille
weft fabric. Chenille yarns are made from all fibers, and they are used as filling in fabrics and for
embroidery, fringes, and tassels. 2. Fabric woven with chenille yarn. (Also see TUFTED
CHEVIOT: A rugged tweed made from uneven yarn, this fabric usually has a rather harsh hand.
CHEVRON: A broad term applied to prints in zigzag stripes or to herringbone weaves.
CHIFFON: A plain weave, lightweight, sheer, transparent fabric made from fine, highly twisted
yarns. It is usually a square fabric, i.e., having approximately the same number of ends and picks
and the same count in both warp and filling.
CHINCHILLA CLOTH: A heavy, twill weave, filling-pile fabric with a napped surface that is
rolled into little tufts or nubs. The material is frequently double faced with a knitted or woven,
plain or fancy back. Chinchilla cloth is used primarily in coats. The term is also used to refer to
a knitted woolen fabric having a napped surface.
CHINO: A cotton or cotton blend twill used by armies throughout the world for summer-weight
uniforms. Chino is frequently dyed khaki.
CHINTZ: A glazed fabric produced by friction calendering. Unglazed chintz is called cretonne.
CHIP: 1. The form of polymer feedstock used in fiber production. (Also see FLAKE.) 2. The
feedstock for a pulp digestor. 3. A defect in a nonwoven fabric.
CHLORINE RETENTION: A characteristic of several resins and textile finishes whereby they
retain some of the chlorine from bleach. On heating of the goods, the chlorine forms
hydrochloric acid, causing tendering of the cloth. This is especially true of certain wrinkle
resistant finishes for cotton and rayon.
CHOKED COILER: A condition in carding or drawing in which sliver is either puffy, badly
condensed, or very uneven, leading to overloading of the coiler trumpets and causing work

CHOKED FLYERS: A situation in which roving will not pass through the flyer channels
because of heavy or cockled conditions caused by such factors as uneven drafting, waste, overcut
fibers, and improper finish.
CHROMATICITY: The quality of color expressed as a function of wavelength and purity.
CHROMATOGRAPHY: The generic name of a group of processes for separating and
analyzing mixtures of chemical compounds. The separation depends on the redistribution of
molecules of the mixture between phases, one of which is thin, often reaching molecular
dimensions. For this reason, molecular size and shape are important in the separation, and
extremely subtle separations are possible.
CHUTE-FEED SYSTEM: Pneumatic fiber transport system used in linking textile processing
equipment or operations, especially opening, blending, and carding.
CIRCULAR-KNIT FABRIC: A tubular weft-knit fabric made of a circular-knitting machine.
CIRÉ: A brilliant patent leather effect produced by application of wax, heat, and pressure.
CLAMPS: The parts of a testing machine that are used to hold a specimen while it is subjected to
force. (Also called jaws.)
CLARITY: 1. In general, the optical property of being clear. 2. In acetate manufacture, a
measure of the appearance of dope solutions, indicating the quality of the acetylation mixture. 3.
In printing, the sharpness or definition of a print pattern.
CLEARING: The treatment of printed fabrics with a chemical solution to improve the
appearance of the whites. In many cases the treatment also brightens the printed areas. (Also see
CLIPMARK: Visible deformation of selvage due to pressure from a tenter clip.
CLO: A unit of thermal resistance. The insulation needed to keep an individual producing heat
at the rate of 58W/m2 comfortable of 21°C air temperature with air movement of 0.1 m/s. One
clo is roughly equal to the insulation value of typical indoor clothing.
CLOQUÉ FABRIC: From the French term for blistered, it refers to any fabric whose surface
exhibits an irregularly raises blister effect.
CLOTH: A generic term embracing all textile fabrics and felts. Cloth may be formed of any
textile fiber, wire, or other material, and it includes any pliant fabric woven, knit, felted, needled,
sewn, or otherwise formed.
CLOUDY WEB: An uneven or irregular web from the doffer of a card.
CLUMPS: In nonwoven fabrics, an irregularly shaped grouping of fibers caused by insufficient
fiber separation.

COACERVATION: The collection of colloidal particles into droplets held together by
electrostatic attraction. This term for the equilibrium state of colloidal systems was introduced in
COAGULATION: The precipitation of particles from a suspension in a liquid, usually resulting
in formation of a gel.
COAGULATION BATH: A liquid bath that serves to harden viscous polymer strands into solid
fibers after extrusion through a spinneret. Used in wet spinning processes such as in rayon or
acrylic fiber manufacture.
COALESCED FILAMENTS: Filaments stuck together by design or accident during the
extrusion process.
COALESCENCE: Merging of two or more substances into a larger substance, i.e., coalesced
COARSE THREAD: A yarn larger in diameter than other yarns being used in the fabric.
COATED FABRIC: A fabric to which a substance such as lacquer, plastic, resin, rubber, or
varnish has been applied in firmly adhering layers to provide certain properties, such as water
COATING: The application of a semi-liquid material such as rubber, polyvinyl chloride, or
polyurethane to one or both sides of a textile material. Once the coating has been dried (and
cured, if necessary), it forms a bond with the fabric.
Calender Coating: A type of roller coating that is actually a laminating operation. The coating
is formed into a sheet, then joined with the fabric.
Cast Coating: A method by which resinous materials such as vinyl are coated onto a fabric and
cured by heated casting drums.
Dip Coating: The process of passing a fabric through a solution of resin or elastomer, then
through squeeze rolls to remove excess and leave a thin surface layer on the base fabric. In this
process, both sides can be coated in one pass. (Also see DIP TREATING).

Direct Coating: The simplest method of coating, this procedure
involves spreading the coating with a knife. The moving fabric
substrate is usually supported by a roller or a sleeve. The gap
between the knife and the fabric determines coating thickness.
Roller Coating: In this method, a roller is used to apply the coating to the moving substrate
fabric. Various roll configurations can be used.
Transfer Coating: This method involves applying the coating to a temporary substrate and then
adding an adhesive coating (tie coat) to allow transfer by roller of the coating to the desired
COCKLED YARN: Spun yarn in which some fibers do not lie parallel to the other fibers but
instead are curled and kinked, forming a rough and uneven surface on the yarn. The general
cause is fiber overcut to the extent that the drafting rolls catch and hold both ends of the fiber at
the same time while attempting to draft, resulting in slippage or breakage. (Also see
COCKLING: A crimpiness or pucker in yarn or fabric usually caused by lack of uniform quality
in the raw material used, improper tension on yarn in weaving, or weaving together yarns of
different numbers.

COHESION: The force that holds fibers together during yarn manufacturing or processing. It is
usually a function of lubricant (type and amount) and fiber crimp.
COILING: The depositing of sliver into cylindrical cans in helical loops. This arrangement
permits easy removal for further processing.
COLOR ABRASION: Color changes in localized areas of a garment resulting from differential
COLORFASTNESS: Resistance to fading; i.e., the property of a dye to retain its color when the
dyed (or printed) textile material is exposed to conditions or agents such as light, perspiration,
atmospheric gases, or washing that can remove or destroy the color. A dye may be reasonably
fast to one agent and only moderately fast to another. Degree of fastness of color is tested by
standard procedures. Textile materials often must meet certain fastness specifications for a
particular use.
COLORIMETER: 1. A device that specifies color by measuring the intensities of the three
primary colors that compose the color under study. 2. An instrument for measuring the
concentration of a known substance in solution by comparing the liquid’s color with standard
COLORIMETRY: Any technique for evaluating a given color in terms of standard colors.
COLOR STRIPPER: A chemical used to remove some or all of the dyestuffs from a fiber, yarn,
or fabric so that a dyeing defect can be corrected, a shade lightened, or another color applied.
COLOUR INDEX (CI): A listing of dyes and chemical structures published by the Society of
Dyers and Colourists. Each structure is assigned a name according to chemical composition.
Each dye is assigned a number according to its class and shade. A correlating structure number is
given when available.
COMBED SLIVER: A continuous band of untwisted fiber, relatively free of short fibers and
trash, produced by combing card sliver.
COMBED YARN: A yarn produced from combed sliver. (Also see COMBING.)
COMBINATION FABRIC: A fabric containing: (1) different fibers in the warp and filling (e.g.,
a cotton warp and a rayon filling), (2) ends of two or more fibers in the warp and/or filling, (3)
combination yarns, (4) both filament yarn and spun yarn of the same or different fibers, or (5)
filament yarns of two or more generic fiber types. Combination fabrics may be either knit or
woven. They should not be confused with blend fabrics. Although blend fabrics also contain
more that one fiber, the same intimately blended spun yarn is present in both warp and filling.
COMBINATION YARN: A piled yarn containing two or more yarns that vary in fiber
composition, content, and/or twist level; or plied yarn composed of both filament yarn and spun

COMBING: A step subsequent to carding in cotton and worsted system processing which
straightens the fibers and extracts neps, foreign matter, and short fibers. Combing produces a
stronger, more even, more compact, finer, smoother yarn.
COMFORT: Performance parameter of apparel referring to wearability. Encompasses such
properties as wicking, stretch, hand, etc.
COMMERCIAL ALLOWANCE: The commercial moisture regain plus a specific allowance
for finish used in calculating the commercial or legal weight of a fiber shipment.
COMMERCIAL MOISTURE REGAIN: An arbitrary value adopted as the moisture regain to
be used in calculating the commercial or legal weight of a fiber shipment.
COMMERCIAL WEIGHT: 1. In natural fibers, the dry weight of fibers or yarns plus the
commercial moisture regain. 2. In manufactured fibers, the dry weight of staple spun yarns or
filament yarns after scouring by prescribed methods, plush the commercial moisture regain.
COMMINGLED YARN: In aerospace textiles, two or more continuous
multifilament yarns, the filaments of which have been intermixed with
each other without adding twist or otherwise disturbing parallel
relationship of the combined filaments. Usually consists of a reinforcing
yarn, such as graphite or glass, and a thermoplastic matrix yarn.
COMPACTED YARNS: Air-jet interlaced yarns. Since the
entanglement serves only as a substitute for twist, the degree of interlace
or tangle is not as great as in air-jet bulked yarns.
COMPACTOR: A machine developed by Fabric Research Laboratories which is used to
compact fabrics or to produce warp-stretch fabrics by means of forced crimp and/or shrinkage of
the warp yarn.
COMPACT SPINNING PROCESS: A term generally referring to a spinning process carried
out using any one of the several small spinning machines of compact design offered by
equipment vendors as “packaged” units in which spinning and subsequent processing (drawing,
crimping, cutting, etc.) are linked.
COMPATIBLE SHRINKAGE: A term used for bonded fabrics to indicate that the face fabric
and lining have similar shrinkage. This is necessary to avoid puckering.
COMPLIANCE: The ability of a fiber to yield under stress; the ratio of the change in strain to
the change in stress that produces it; the reciprocal of the textile modulus.
COMPOSITE: 1. An article or substance of two or more
constituents, generally, with reinforcing elements dispersed in a
matrix or continuous phase. 2. Hard or soft constructions in
which the fibers themselves are consolidated to form structures
rather than being formed into yarns. Rigidity of these
constructions is controlled by the density, the modulus of the
load-bearing fibers, and the fraction of fusible fibers. Strength is controlled by adhesion and

shear-yield strength of the matrix unless fibers are bonded in a load-transferring matrix. 3. A
structure made by laminating a nonwoven fabric with another nonwoven, with other materials, or
by impregnating a nonwoven fabric with resins.
COMPOSITE FIBERS: Fibers composed of two or more polymer types in a sheath-core or
side-by-side (bilateral) relation.
COMPRESSIBILITY: Refers to the ease of reducing the bulk of fabric, carpet, batting, or other
material. May be high or low, soft or hard.
CONDENSATION POLYMERIZATION: A polymerization process yielding a product in
which the repeating unit has fewer atoms that the monomer or monomers. Generally, the
separation of water or some other simple substance occurs as a result of the reaction, e.g.,
ethylene glycol in polyester production.
CONDITIONING: A process of allowing textile materials (staple, tow, yarns, and fabrics) to
reach hygroscopic equilibrium with the surrounding atmosphere. Materials may be conditioned
in a standard atmosphere (65%RH,70°F) for testing purposes or in arbitrary conditions existing in
manufacturing or processing areas.
CONE: A conical package of yarn, usually wound on a disposable paper core.
CONING: The transfer of yarn from skeins or bobbins or other types of packages to cones.
CONJUGATE FIBER: A two-component fiber with specific ability to crimp on hot or hot/wet
treatment because of differential shrinkage. (Also see BILATERAL FIBERS.)
CONJUGATE YARN: A yarn made from conjugate filaments.
CONSOLIDATION: Application of heat and pressure to form composite structures.
CONTACT ANGLE: The angle between the surface of a liquid and the surface of a partially
submerged object or the container at the line of contact. The smaller the contact angle, the
greater the wettability of the solid.
manufacture, linkage of the various stages of
polymerization so that materials flow without
interruption from the addition of raw materials to
delivery of the finished polymer from the system.
Extrusion as film, chip or fiber may be linked to a
continuous polymerization line. Because there is no
break in the process while the transition from low
molecular weight to high occurs, multiple stage reaction
vessels may be required and accurate process control is

CONVERTED FABRIC: A finished fabric as distinguished from greige fabric.
CONVERTER: An individual or organization which buys greige fabrics and sells them as a
finished product to cutters, wholesalers, retailers, and others. The converter arranges for the
finishing of the fabric, namely bleaching, mercerizing, dyeing, printing, etc., to the buyers’
CONVOLUTION: 1. An irregular spiral or twisted condition characteristic of mature cotton
fiber. It is visible under a microscopic. The finer fibers are generally more twisted than the
coarser fibers. 2. Coil and curl in certain types of textured yarns which provide bulkiness to the
COP: 1. A headless tube upon which yarn or thread is wound. 2. Thread or yarn wound into the
shape of a hollow cylinder with tapered ends. 3. Filling yarn wound upon a tapered tube
(generally paper).
COPOLYMER: A polymer composed of a combination of more that one monomer (usually
two). Copolymers are the basis of some manufactured fibers.
CORD: 1. The product formed by twisting together two or more plied yarns. 2. A rib on the
surface of a fabric (e.g., corduroy and whipcord).
CORDUROY: A filling-pile fabric with ridges of pile (cords)
running lengthwise parallel to the selvage.
CORE SPINNING: The process of making a corespun yarn.
It consists of feeding the core yarn (an elastomeric filament
yarn, a regular filament yarn, a textured yarn, or a previously
spun yarn) into the front delivery roll of the spinning frame and
of covering the core yarn with a sheath of fibers during the
spinning operation.
CORE-SPUN YARN: A yarn made by twisting fibers around a
filament or a previously spun yarn, thus concealing the core.

Core yarns are used in sewing thread, blankets, and socks and also to obtain novelty effects in
CORKSCREW TWIST: A place in yarn or cord where uneven twist gives a corkscrew-like
CORRUGATION MARK: A fabric defect consisting of a crimped, rippled, wavy, pebbled, or
cockled area in the fabric spoiling the uniformity of the texture.
COT: The covering material used on various fiber-processing rolls, especially drawing rolls.
Leather, cork, rubber, and synthetic materials are frequently employed.
COTTAGE STEAMER: A chamber used for batch steaming of printed or dyed textiles. Cloth
is looped on “poles” on a special cart which fits into the steamer for processing.
COTTON COUNT: The yarn numbering system based on length and weight originally used for
cotton yarns and now employed for most staple yarns spun on the cotton, or short-staple, system.
It is based on a unit length of 840 yards, and the count of the yarn is equal to the number of 840-
yard skeins required to weigh 1 pound. Under this system, the higher the number, the finer the
yarn. (Also see YARN NUMBER.)
COTTON FIBER: A unicellular, natural fiber composed of almost pure cellulose. As taken
from plants, the fiber is found in lengths of 3/8 to 2 inches. For marketing, the fibers are graded
and classed for length, strength, and color.
COTTON SYSTEM: A process originally used for manufacturing cotton fiber into yarn, and
now also used extensively for producing spun yarns of manufactured fibers, including blends.
Processing on the cotton system includes the general operations of opening, picking, carding,
drawing, roving, and ring or mule spinning in the production of carded yarns. For combed yarns,
three steps, culminating in combing, are included after the carding operation. There have been
many modifications of this process, especially in recent years for the so-called “long draft,” or
“Casablancas,” system. The cotton system is also proving to be the basis of many hybrid systems
for handling wool yarns and for manufacturing other long-staple yarns..
COUNT: 1. A numerical designation of yarn size indicating the relationship of length to weight.
(Also see YARN NUMBER.) 2. The number of warp yarns (ends) and filling yarns (picks) per
inch in a woven fabric, or the number of wales and courses per inch in a knit fabric. For example,
a fabric count of 68 x 52 indicates 68 ends per inch in the warp and 52 picks per inch in the
COURSE: The row of loops or stitches running across a knit fabric, corresponding to the filling
in woven fabrics.
COVER: 1. The degree of evenness of thread spacing. 2. The degree to which underlying
structure is concealed by the surface material, as in carpets, the degree to which pile covers
backing. 3. The ability of a dye to conceal defects in fabric.
COVER FACTOR: The fraction of the surface area that is covered by yarns assuming round
yarn shape.

COVERSTOCK: A lightweight nonwoven material used to contain and conceal an underlying
core material. Examples are the facing materials that cover the absorbent cores of diapers,
sanitary napkins, and adult incontinence products.
COVERT: A mediumweight to heavyweight wool or wool blend cloth woven with a steep twill
from two or more shades of yarn-dyed fibers to produce a mottled or melange effect.
COWOVEN FABRIC: In aerospace textiles, a fabric in which a
reinforcing fiber and a matrix fiber are adjacent to each other as one end in
the warp and/or filling direction.
CRAB: A hand device used to stretch carpets in a small area.
CRABBING: The process of heating wool or hair fabrics, under tension,
in a hot or boiling liquid, then cooling under tension, to provide the fabric
with dimensional stability for further wet processing.
CRACK: A defect in a woven fabric consisting of an open fillingwise streak extending partly or
entirely across the fabric.
CRACK MARK: A sharp break or crease in the surface of a coated or laminated fabric.
CRASH: A course fabric with a rough, irregular surface made from thick, uneven yarns.
CREASE: A break or line in a fabric generally caused by a sharp fold. Creases may be either
desirable or undesirable, depending upon the situation. A crease may be intentionally pressed
into a fabric by application of pressure and heat and sometimes moisture.
CREASE-RESISTANT: A term used to describe a fabric treated chemically to improve its
resistance to and recovery from wrinkling.
CREASE RETENTION: The ability of a fabric to maintain an inserted crease. Crease retention
can be measured subjectively or by the relation of a crease in a subsequent state to the crease in
the initial state. Crease retention may be strongly dependent on the conditions of use, e.g.,
normal wear, washing or tumble-drying.
CREEL: 1. A framework arranged to hold slivers, rovings, or yarns so that many ends can be
withdrawn smoothly and evenly without tangling. 2. A similar device used to aggregate sub-tows
to tows in manufactured staple processing, especially polyester.
CREELING: The mounting of supply packages in a creel to feed fiber to a process, i.e., beaming
or warping.

CREPE: A lightweight fabric characterized by a crinkling surface obtained by the use of: (1)
hard-twist filling yarns, (2) chemical treatment, (3) crepe weaves, and (4) embossing.
CRIMP: 1. The waviness of a fiber expressed as crimps per unit length. 2. The difference in
distance between two points on an unstretched fiber and the same two points when the fiber is
straightened under specified tension. Crimp is expressed as a percentage of the unstretched
length. 3. The difference in distance between two points on a yarn as it lies in a fabric and the
same two points when the yarn has been removed from the fabric and straightened under
specified tension, expressed as a percentage of the distance between the two points as the yarn
lies in the fabric.
CRIMP AMPLITUDE: The height of displacement of the fiber from
its uncrimped condition.
CRIMP DEREGISTERING: The process of opening a tow band by
causing the peaks and valleys of the crimp to lay randomly rather that uniformly.
CRIMP ENERGY: The amount of work required to uncrimp a fiber.
CRIMP FREQUENCY: The crimp level, or number of crimps per inch in yarn or tow.
CRIMPING: The process of imparting crimp to tow or filament yarn.
CRIMP SETTING: An aftertreatment to set the crimp in yarn or fiber. Usually heat and steam
are used, although the treatment may be chemical in nature.
CRINKLE: 1. A wrinkled or puckered effect in fabric. It may be obtained either in the
construction or in the finishing of the fabric. 2. The term is sometimes incorrectly used to
describe the crimp of staple fiber.
CRINOLINE: A stiff, heavily sized fabric used as an interlining or to support areas such as the
edge of a hem.
CROCHETING: The interlocking of loops from a single thread with a hooked needle.
Crocheting can be done either by hand or by machine.
CROCKING: The rubbing-off of dye from a fabric as a result of insufficient dye penetration or
fixation, the use of improper dyes or dyeing methods, or insufficient washing and treatment after
the dyeing operation. Crocking can occur under dry or wet conditions.

CROSS DIRECTION: The width dimension, within the plane of the fabric, that is perpendicular
to the direction in which the fabric is being produced by the machine.
CROSS-FLOW QUENCH: In cooling extruded polymer filaments, refers to
cooling air directed from one side cross the path of the filaments. There may
be some type of suction on the opposite side to remove the heated air.
CROSS-LINKING: The stabilization of cellulosic or manufactured fibers
through chemical reaction with certain compounds in such a way that the
cellulose or manufactured polymer chains are bridged across or “crosslinked.”
Cross-linking improves such mechanical factors as wrinkle
resistance. Random cross-linking in manufactured polymers is undesirable and leads to
brittleness and loss of tensile strength.
CROSS-SECTION: The shape of an individual filament when cut at right angles to its axis.
Normal shapes for manufactured fibers vary, e.g., round (nylon, polyester, polypropylene, and
some acrylics), serrated or crenular (viscose rayon, acetate, and triacetate),
bean-shaped (some acrylics and modacrylics). The shaped of manufactured
fibers can be modified by changing the shape of the holes in the spinneret.
Cross-sectional variants are produced intentionally in wide variety of shapes
for different physical effects such as change in luster or hand, improved
resistance to soiling, etc. Examples are trilobal (T and Y) and other multilobal
shapes (cruciform, K, X, pentalobal, star, etc.), I-beam, ribbon, square,
triangular, elliptical, hollow, and many others.
CROWSFEET: A fabric defect consisting of breaks or wrinkles of varying degrees of intensity
and size, resembling bird’s footprints in shape, and occurring during wet processing of fabrics.
CRYSTALLINE: Made up of crystals. The term crystalline applies to sections of all chemical
fibers, which consists of alternate crystalline and amorphous (noncrystalline) regions. These
regions are influenced by manufacturing conditions and to some extent can be controlled. The
degree of crystallinity influences the physical properties of fibers.
CRYSTALLINE GROWTH: 1. The expansion and development of a crystal. The process
involves diffusion of the crystallizing material to special sites on the surface of the crystal,
incorporation of the molecules into the surface at these sites, and diffusion of heat away from the
surface of the crystal. 2. The transformation of disoriented molecules, usually of the same
substance, to a higher state of order. This process generally occurs rapidly for small molecules;
however, the process is slow for polymer molecules and is arrested at temperatures below the
glass transition temperature.
CRYSTALLINITY: 1. The state of quality of being crystalline. 2. The extent to which a
polymer exists in a lattice structure.
CRYSTALLIZATION: The formation of highly-ordered substances (crystals) from solutions or
melts. In polymers, crystalline areas are interspersed with amorphous areas in a lattice-like
network. (Also see MACROLATTICE.)

CUPIONI: A type of specialty or novelty yarn having slubs or enlarged sections of varying
CUPRAMMONIUM RAYON: Filaments produced by precipitating cellulose dissolved in a
solution of copper oxide in ammonia. (Also see RAYON FIBER.)
CURING: 1. In finishing fabrics, the process by which resins or plastics are set in or on textile
materials, usually by heating. 2. In rubber processing, vulcanization. It is accomplished either by
heat treatment or by treatment in cold sulfuryl chloride solution.
CUSHION-BACK CARPET: A carpet with padding made as an integral part of the backing.
CUT: 1. A unit of yarn number. The number of 100-yard lengths per pound avoirdupois of
asbestos yarn or glass yarn, or the number of 300-yards lengths per pound avoirdupois of woolen
yarn. 2. A length of woven cloth. 3. The number of needles per inch on a circular-knitting
machine. A machine with 34 needles per inch is a 34-cut machine, and a fabric produced thereon
is called a 34-cut fabric.
CUT PILE: A pile surface obtained by cutting the loops of yarn in a
tufted or woven carpet.
CUT SELVAGE: A cut or break occurring only in the selvage. A cut
selvage is caused by incorrect loom adjustment during weaving or
improper edge construction. The term also refers to loose edges cut
during shearing of the fabric.
CUT STAPLE: 1. An inferior cotton fiber that was accidentally cut
because it was too damp during ginning. 2. A term sometimes used to
denote staple of manufactured fibers.
CUTTER: 1. A mechanical device used to cut tow into staple. 2. A firm engaged in making up
garments from finished fabrics. 3. A person employed in the wholesale garment industry whose
specific work is to cut layers of fabric to be formed into garments.
CUT YARN: A defective yarn, i.e., cut partially or completely through, resulting from
CYCLIC STRESS-STRAIN: Repeated loading of a yarn on a tensile testing machine and the
determination of the physical properties of the yarn during these cycles.
CYCLIC TRIMER: Strictly, a polymer, in cyclic form, that contains three repeating groups.
Cyclic trimer is a by-product found in all commercial polyester and results in deposit buildup in
package-dyeing equipment.

CYLINDER: 1. In carding, a large cast iron shell, with an outer diameter of
40 to 45 inches, completely covered with card clothing on the surface. The
shell is mounted rigidly on a shaft which projects at each end to rest in
bearings. The cylinder must be accurately balanced since it rotates at speeds
of 160 revolutions per minute and higher. 2. The main roll, or pressure
bowl, on roller printing machines. The engraved rolls that apply color are
arranged around the cylinder. (Also see PRINTING, Roller Printing.) 3. A
slotted cylindrical housing for the needles in a circular-knitting machine. The number of slots per
inch in the cylinder determines the cut of the machine. 4. See DRYING CYLINDERS.
CYLINDER LOADING: Fibers imbedded so deeply in the wire clothing on a card cylinder that
they resist transfer to the doffer cylinder according to the normal fiber path through the card.
Causes include improper finish, excess moisture, or static on the fiber. The fiber builds up to
such an extent that the carding operation is adversely affected. In extreme cases, the card will be
slowed or stopped.
CYMATIC PRINTING: This proprietary process owned by KBC is a method in which the
oscillations of a musical chord are “caught” on a quartz plate and the vibration patterns
photographed. The patterns thus obtained are used in making unique print fabrics of unusual
variety and originality.

DAMASK: A firm, glossy, Jacquard-patterned fabric that may be made from linen, cotton, rayon,
silk, or a combination of these with various manufactured fibers. Similar to brocade, but flatter
and reversible, damask is used for napkins, tablecloths, draperies, and upholstery.
DAMPENING (IN TIRE CORD): The relative ability to absorb energy and deaden oscillation
after excitation.
DECATING MARK: A crease mark or impression extending fillingwise across the fabric near
the beginning or end of the piece.
DECATIZING: A finishing process in which fabric, wound tightly on a perforated roller, either
has hot water circulated through it (wet decatizing), or has steam blown through it (dry
decatizing). The process is aimed chiefly at improving the hand and removing wrinkles.
DECITEX: One tenth of a tex.
DECORTICATING: A mechanical process for separating the woody matter from the bast fiber
of such plants as ramie and hemp.
DEEP-DYEING VARIANTS: Polymers that have been chemically modified to increase their
dyeability. Fibers and fabrics made therefrom can be dyed to very heavy depth.
DEFECTS: A general term that refers to some flaw in a textile product that detracts from either
performance or appearance properties.
DEFORMATION: A change in the shape of a specimen, e.g., an increase in length produced as
the result of the application of a tensile load or force. Deformation may be immediate or delayed,
and the latter may be recoverable or nonrecoverable.
DEGRADATION: The loss of desirable physical properties by a textile material as a result of
some process or physical/chemical phenomenon.
DEGREE OF ESTERIFICATION: The extent to which the acid groups of terephthalic and/or
other acids have reacted with diols to form ester groups in polyester polymer production.
DEGREE OF POLYMERIZATION: Refers to the number of monomer units in an average
polymer. It can be controlled during processing and affects the properties of the end product.
DEGUMMING: The removal of gum from silk by boiling in a mildly alkaline solution. Usually
accomplished on the knit or woven fabric.

DELAYED DEFORMATION: Deformation that is time-dependent and is exhibited by material
subjected to a continuing load; creep. Delayed deformation may be recoverable following
removal of the applied load.
DELUSTERING: Subduing or dulling the natural luster of a textile material by chemical or
physical means. The term often refers to the use of titanium dioxide or other white pigments as
delustrants in textile materials.
DELUSTRANT: A substance that can be used to dull the luster of a manufactured fiber. Often a
pigment such as titanium dioxide.
DENIER: A weight-per-unit-length measure of any linear material. Officially, it is the number
of unit weights of 0.05 grams per 450-meter length. This is numerically equal to the weight in
grams of 9,000 meters of the material. Denier is a direct numbering system in which the lower
numbers represent the finer sizes and the higher numbers the coarser sizes. In the U.S., the denier
system is used for numbering filament yarns (except glass), manufactured fiber staple (but not
spun yarns), and tow. In most countries outside the U.S., the denier system has been replaced by
the tex system. The following denier terms are in use:
Denier per Filament (dpf): The denier of an individual continuous filament or an individual
staple fiber if it were continuous. In filament yarns, it is the yarn denier divided by the number of
Yard Denier: The denier of a filament yarn. It is the product of the denier per filament and the
number of filaments in the yarn.
Total Denier: The denier of a tow before it is crimped. It is the product of the denier per
filament and the number of filaments in the tow. The total denier after crimping (called crimped
total denier) is higher because of the resultant increase in weight per unit length.
DENIER VARIATION: Usually variation in diameter, or other cross-sectional dimension, along
the length of a filament or bundle of filaments. It is caused by malfunction or lack of process
control in fiber manufacturing and degrades resulting fabric appearance or performance.
DENIM: A firm 2 x 1 or 3 x 1 twill-weave fabric, often having a whitish tinge, obtained by using
white filling yarns with colored warp yarns. Heavier weight denims, usually blue or brown, are
used for dungarees, work clothes, and men’s and women’s sportswear. Lighter weight denims
with softer finish are made in a variety of colors and patterns and are used for sportswear and
DENSITY: The mass per unit volume (usually expressed as grams per cubic centimeter). (Also
DENT: On a loom, the space between the wires of a reed.
DEREGISTERING (CRIMP): Process of disordering or disaligning the crimp in a tow band to
produce bulk. (Also see THREADED-ROLL PROCESS.)
DESULFURIZING: An aftertreatment to remove sulfur from newly spun viscose rayon by
passing the yarn through a sodium sulfide solution.

DETERGENT: A synthetic cleaning agent containing surfactants that do not precipitate in hard
water and have the ability to emulsify oil and suspend dirt.
DEVELOPING: A stage in dyeing or printing in which leuco compounds, dyes, or dye
intermediates are converted to the final, stable state or shade.
DEWPOINT: The temperature at which a gas begins to condense as a liquid at a given pressure.
Thus in air, it is the temperature at which the air becomes saturated when cooled with no further
addition of moisture or change in pressure.
DIAL: In a circular-knitting machine, a circular steel plate with radially
arranged slots for needles. A knitting machine equipped with both a dial
and a cylinder (q.v.) can produce double-knit fabrics.
DIAMINE: A compound with two amino groups.
Hexamethylenediamine, one of the intermediates in the manufacture of
nylon 66 salt, is an example of this chemical type.
DIELECTRIC BREAKDOWN VOLTAGE: In an electrical insulating material, the voltage at
which electrical breakdown occurs, i.e., the voltage at which current will flow and/or the material
DIELECTRIC CONSTANT: Measure of the ability of a dielectric material to store electrical
potential energy under the influence of an electric field, measured by the ratio of the capacitance
of a condenser with the material as the dielectric to its capacitance with a vacuum as the
DIELECTRIC STRENGTH: The average voltage gradient at which electrical failure or
breakdown occurs. Expressed in volts per mil.
DIFFERENTIAL THERMAL ANALYSIS: A method of determining the temperature at which
thermal events occur in a material undergoing continuous heating.
DIFFUSION: 1. A more or less gradual movement of molecules or ions through a solution or
fiber as a result of the existence of a concentration gradient or repulsive or attractive forces. 2.
The random movement of gas molecules.
DIMENSIONAL RESTORABILITY: The ability of a fabric to be returned to its original
dimensions after laundering or dry cleaning, expressed in percent. For example, 2% dimensional
restorability means that although a fabric may shrink more than this in washing, it can be restored
to within 2% of its original dimensions by ordinary home pressing methods.
DIMENSIONAL STABILITY: The ability of textile material to maintain or return to its
original geometric configuration.

DIMETHYL TEREPHTHALATE: [p-C6H4(COOCH3)2] An intermediate used in the
production of polyethylene terephthalate, the polymer from which polyester fibers and resins are
DIMITY: A sheer, thin, spun cloth that sometimes has cords or stripes woven in. It is used for
aprons, pinafores, and many types of dress goods.
DIP: 1. Immersion of a textile material in some processing liquid. The term is usually used in
connection with a padding or slashing process. 2. The rubber compound with which tire cords
and other in-rubber textiles are treated to give improved adhesion to rubber.
DIP PENETRATION: The degree of saturation through a tire cord after impregnation with an
DIP PICKUP: The amount of adhesive applied to a tire cord by dipping, expressed as a
percentage of the weight of the cord before dipping.
DIP TREATING: The process of passing fiber, cord, or fabric through an adhesive bath,
followed by drying and heat-treating of the adhesive-coated fiber to obtain better adhesion.
DIRECT ESTERIFICATION: In the production of polyethylene terephthalate, the process in
which ethylene glycol is reacted with terephthalic acid to form bis-â-hydroxyethyl terephthalate
monomer with the generation of water as a by-product.
DIRECTIONALLY ORIENTED FABRICS: Rigid fabric constructions containing inlaid warp
or fill yarns held in place by a warp-knit structure. Used in geotextiles, coated fabrics,
composites, etc.
DISC TEST: An in-rubber test used to predict the fatigue resistance of tire cords and other
industrial yarns.
DISPERSANT: A dispersing agent, often of a surface active chemical, that promotes formation
of a dispersion or maintains a state of dispersion by preventing settling or aggregation.
DISPERSION: 1. A system consisting of finely divided particles and the medium in which they
are distributed. 2. Separation of light into colors by diffraction or refraction. 3. A qualitative

estimation of the separation and uniform distribution of fibers in the liquid during the production
of a wet-formed nonwoven fabric.
DISTRIBUTION LENGTH: In fibers, a graphic or tabular presentation of the proportion or
percentage (by number or by weight) of fibers having different lengths.
DIVIDED THREADLINE EXTRUSION: Spinning of two separate threadlines from one
DOBBY: 1. A mechanical attachment on a loom. A dobby controls the harnesses to permit the
weaving of geometric figures. 2. A loom equipped with a dobby. 3. A fabric woven on a dobby
DOCTOR BLADE: A metal knife that cleans or scrapes the excess
dye from engraved printing rollers, leaving dye paste only in the valleys
of engraved areas. Also used to describe other blades that are used to
apply materials evenly to rollers or fabrics.
DOCTOR STREAK: A defect in printed fabrics consisting of a wavy
white or colored streak in the warp direction. It is caused by a damaged
or improperly set doctor blade on the printing machine.
DOESKIN FINISH: A soft low nap that is brushed in one direction. Cloth with this type of
finish is used on billiard tables and in men’s wear.
DOFF: A set of full bobbins produced by one machine (a roving frame, a spinning frame, or a
manufactured filament-yarn extrusion machine).
DOFFER: 1. The last or delivery cylinder of the card from which the sheet of fibers is removed
by the doffer comb. 2. An operator who removes full bobbins, spools, containers, or other
packages from a machine and replaces them with empty ones.
DOFFER COMB: A reciprocating comb, the teeth of which oscillate close to the card clothing
of the doffer to strip the web of fibers from the card.
DOFFER LOADING: Fibers imbedded so deeply into the doffer wire clothing that the doffer
comb cannot dislodge them to form a traveling web.
DOFFING: The operation of removing full packages, bobbins, spools, roving cans, caps, etc.,
from a machine and replacing them with empty ones.
DONEGAL: A tweed fabric with colorful slubs woven in, donegal is used for suits and coats.
DOPE-DYED: See DYEING, Mass-Colored.
DOTTED SWISS: A sheer cotton or cotton blend fabric with small dot motif, dotted swiss is
used for dress goods, curtains, baby clothes, etc.

DOUBLE BACK: A secondary backing glued to the back of carpet, usually to increase
dimensional stability.
DOUBLE-CLOTH CONSTRUCTION: Two fabrics are woven in the loom at the same time,
one fabric on top of the other, with binder threads holding the two fabrics together. The weave on
the two fabrics can be different.
DOUBLE END: Two ends woven as one in a fabric. A double end may be intentional for fabric
styling, or accidental, in which case a fabric defect results.
DOUBLE-KNIT FABRIC: A fabric produced on a circular-knitting
machine equipped with two sets of latch needles situated at right angles
to each other (dial and cylinder).
DOUBLE WEAVE: A fabric woven with two systems of warp or filling threads so combined
that only one is visible on either side. Cutting the yarns that hold the two cloths together yields
two separate cutpile fabrics.
DOUBLING: 1. A process for combining several strands of sliver, roving, or yarn in yarn
manufacturing. 2. The process of twisting together two or more singles or plied yarns, i.e.,
plying. 3. A British term for twisting. 4. The term doubling is sometimes used in a sense
opposite to singling. This is unintentional plying. 5. A yarn, considerably heavier that normal,
produced by a broken end becoming attached to and twisting into another end.
DOUPPIONI: A rough or irregular yarn made of silk reeled from double or triple cocoons.
Fabrics of douppioni have an irregular appearance with long, thin slubs. Douppioni-like yarns are
now being spun from polyester and/or rayon staple.
DOWNDRAFT METIER: A dry-spinning machine in which the airflow within the drying
cabinet is in the same direction as the yarn path (downward).
DOWNGRADE: In quality control, the lowering of the grade and/or value of a product due to
the presence of defects.
DOWNTWISTER: A cap, ring, or flyer twisting frame.

DOWNTWISTING: A process for inserting twist into yarn in which the yarn passes downward
from the supply package (a bobbin, cheese, or cone) to the revolving spindle. The package or
packages of yarn to be twisted are positioned on the creel, and the ends of yarn are led downward
through individual guides and stop motions to the positively driven feed roll and from there to the
revolving take-up package or bobbin, which inserts twist.
DOWTHERM®: Trademark of Dow Chemical Company for a series of heat transfer media.
Dowtherm jackets are used around molten polymer processing lines.
DRAFT: In weaving, a pattern or plan for drawing-in.
DRAFT RATIO: The ratio between the weight or length of fiber fed into various machines and
that delivered from the machines in spun yarn manufacture. It represents the reduction in bulk
and weight of stock, one of the most important principles in the production of yarn from staple
DRAPE: A term to describe the way a fabric falls while it hangs; the suppleness and ability of a
fabric to form graceful configurations.
DRAW-BACK: A crossed end; an end broken during warping that when repaired was not free or
was tied in with an adjacent end or ends overlapping the broken end. The end draws or pulls back
when unwound on the slasher. (Also see STICKER, 1.)
DRAW DOWN: The amount by which manufactured filaments are stretched following
extrusion. (Also see DRAWING, 2.)
DRAW-FRAME BLENDS: Blends of fibers made at the draw frame by feeding in ends of
appropriate card sliver. This method is used when blend uniformity is not a critical factor.
DRAWING: 1. The process of attenuating or
increasing the length per unit weight of laps, slivers,
slubbings, or rovings. 2. The hot or cold stretching of
continuous filament yarn or tow to align and arrange
the crystalline structure of the molecules to achieve
improved tensile properties.
DRAWING-IN: In weaving, the process of threading
warp ends through the eyes of the heddles and the
dents of the reed.
DRAWN TOW: A zero-twist bundle of continuous filaments that has been stretched to achieve
molecular orientation. (Tows for staple and spun yarn application are usually crimped.)
Drawing Sliver

DRAW RATIO: The ratio of final to original length per unit weight of yarn, laps, slivers,
slubbings, rovings, etc., resulting from drawing. (Also see DRAFT RATIO and DRAW DOWN.)
DRAW-SIZING: A system linking drawwarping
and sizing in a continuous process.
A typical system includes the following
elements: (1) creel, (2) eyelet board, (3)
warp-draw machine, (4) intermingler, (5)
tension compensator and break monitor, (6)
sizing bath, (7) dryers, (8) waxing and
winding units.
DRAW-TEXTURING: In the manufacture of thermoplastic fibers, the simultaneous process of
drawing to increase molecular orientation and imparting crimp to increase bulk.
DRAW-TWISTING: The operation of stretching continuous filament yarn to align and order the
molecular and crystalline structure in which the yarn is taken up by means of a ring-and-traveler
device that inserts a small amount of twist (usually ¼ to ½ turn per inch) into the drawn yarn.
DRAW-WARPING: A process in which a number of
threadlines, usually 800 to 2000 ends of POY feedstock,
are oriented under essentially equal mechanical and
thermal conditions by a stretching stage using variable
speed rolls, then directly wound onto the beam. This
process gives uniform end-to-end properties.
DRAW-WINDING: The operation of stretching continuous filament yarn to align or order
molecular and crystalline structure. The drawn yarn is taken up on a parallel tub or cheese,
resulting in a zero-twist yarn.
DRILL: A strong denim-like material with a diagonal 2 x 1 weave running toward the left
selvage. Drill is often called khaki when it is dyed that color.
DROPPED STITCHES: A defect in knit cloth characterized by recurrent cuts in one or more
wales of a length of cloth.
DROP STITCH: 1. An open design made in knitting by removing some of the needles at set
intervals. 2. A defect in knit fabric.
DROP WIRES: A stop-motion device utilizing metal wires suspended from warp or creeled
yarns. When a yarn breaks, the wire drops, activation the switch that stops the machine.
DRY CLEANING: Removing dirt and stains from fabrics or garments by processing in organic
solvents (chlorinated hydrocarbons or mineral spirits).
DRY FILLING: The application of finishing chemicals to dry fabric, usually by padding.
DRY FORMING: The production of fiber webs by methods that do not use water or other
liquids, i.e., air-laying or carding.

DRYING CYLINDERS: Any of a number of heated revolving cylinders for drying fabric or
yarn. They are arranged either vertically or horizontally in sets, with the number varying
according to the material to be dried. They are often internally heated with steam and Tefloncoated
to prevent sticking.
DRY-LAID NONWOVENS: Nonwoven web made from dry fiber. Usually refers to fabrics
from carded webs versus air-laid nonwovens which are formed from random webs.
DUCK: A compact, firm, heavy, plain weave fabric with a weigh of 6 to 50 ounces per square
yard. Plied yarn duck has plied yarn in both warp and filling. Flat duck has a warp of two single
yarns woven as one and a filling of either single or plied yarn.
DULL: A term applied to manufactured fibers that have been chemically or physically modified
to reduce their normal luster. Matte; opposite of bright; low in luster.
DUMBELLS: A defect frequently seen in wet-formed nonwoven fabrics; an unusually long fiber
will become entangled with groups of regular-length fibers at each end, thus producing a
dumbbell-shaped clump.
DUNGAREE: A term describing a coarse denim-type fabric, usually dyed blue, that is used for
work overalls.
DURABILITY: A relative term for the resistance of a material to loss of physical properties or
appearance as a result of wear or dynamic operation.
DURABLE PRESS: A term describing a garment that has been treated so that it retains its
smooth appearance, shape, and creases or pleats in laundering. In such garments no ironing is
required, particularly if the garment is tumble-dried. Durable press finishing is accomplished by
several methods; two of the most common are the following: (1) A fabric that contains a
thermoplastic fiber and cotton or rayon may be treated with a special resin that, when cured,
imparts the permanent shape to the cotton or rayon component of the fabric. The resin-treated
fabric may be precured (cured in finishing and subsequently pressed in garment form at a higher
temperature to achieve the permanent shape) or postcured (not cured until the finished garment
has been sewn and pressed into shape). In both cases, the thermoplastic fiber in the garment is set
in the final heat treatment. This fiber, when heat-set, also contributes to the permanence of the
garment shape, but the thermoplastic component of the blend is needed for strength since the
cotton or rayon component is somewhat degraded by the durable-press treatment. (2) Garments
of a fabric containing a sufficient amount of a thermoplastic fiber, such as polyester, nylon, or
acrylic, may be pressed with sufficient pressure and time to achieve a permanent garment shape.
DUST-RESISTANT: A term applied to a fabric that has been tightly woven so that it resists dust

DWELL TIME: The time during a process in which a particular substance remains in one
location (e.g., the time during which molten polymer remains in a spinning pack.)
DYE FLECK: 1. An imperfection in fabric caused by residual undissolved dye. 2. A defect
caused by small sections of undrawn thermoplastic yarn that dye deeper that the drawn yarn.
DYEING: A process of coloring fibers, yarns, or fabrics with either natural or synthetic dyes.
Some of the major dyeing processes are described below:
Batik: A resist-dyeing process in which portions of a fabric are coated with wax; during the
dyeing process, only the uncovered areas take up dye. The process can be repeated so that
several colors are used. Batik dyeing is often imitated in machine printing.
Chain Dyeing: A method of dyeing yarns and fabrics of low tensile strength of tying them endto-
end and running them through the dyebath in a continuous process.
Cross Dyeing: A method of dyeing blend or combination fabrics to two or more shades by the
use of dyes with different affinities for the different fibers.
High-Temperature Dyeing: A dyeing operation in which the aqueous dyebaths are maintained
at temperatures greater than 100°C by use of pressurized equipment. Used for many
manufactured fibers.
Ingrain: Term used to describe yarn or stock that is dyed in two or more shades prior to knitting
or weaving to create blended color effects in fabrics.
Jet Dyeing: High temperature piece dyeing in which the dye liquor is circulated via a Venturi jet
thus providing the driving force to move the loop of fabric.
Mass-Colored: A term to describe a manufactured fiber (yarn, staple, or tow) that has been
colored by the introduction of pigments or insoluble dyes into the polymer melt or spinning
solution prior to extrusion. Usually, the colors are fast to most destructive agents.
Muff Dyeing: A form of yarn dyeing in which the cone has been removed.
Package Dyeing: See DYEING, Yarn Dyeing.
Pad Dyeing: A form of dyeing whereby a dye solution is applied by means
of a padder or mangle.
Piece Dyeing: The dyeing of fabrics “in the piece,” i.e., in fabric form
after weaving or knitting as opposed to dyeing in the form of yarn or stock.
Pressure Dyeing: Dyeing by means of forced circulation of dye through
packages of fiber, yarn, or fabric under superatmospheric pressure.
Printing: See PRINTING.
Reserve Dyeing: 1. A method of dyeing in which one component of a blend or combination
fabric is left undyed. The objective is accomplished by the use of dyes that have affinity for the

fiber to be colored but not for the fiber to be reserved. 2. A method of treating yarn or fabric so
that in the subsequent dyeing operation the treated portion will not be dyed.
Short-Liquor Dyeing: A term used to describe any yarn or piece dyeing in which the liquor
ration has been significantly reduced. The technique was designed to save water and energy.
Skein Dyeing: The dyeing of yarn in the form of skeins, or hanks.
Solution Dyeing: See DYEING, Mass-Colored.
Solvent Dyeing: A dyeing method based on solubility of a dye in some liquid other than water,
although water may be present in the dyebath.
Space Dyeing: A yarn-dyeing process in which each strand is dyed with more that one color at
irregular intervals. Space dyeing produces an effect of unorganized design in subsequent fabric
form. The two primary methods are knit-de-knit and warp printing.
Spun-Dyed: See DYEING, Mass-
Stock Dyeing: The dyeing of fibers in
staple form.
Thermal Fixation: A process for dyeing
polyester whereby the color is diffused
into the fiber by means of dry heat.
Union Dyeing: A method of dyeing a fabric containing two or more fibers or yarns to the same
shade so as to achieve the appearance of a solid colored fabric.
Yarn Dyeing: The dyeing of yarn before the fabric is woven or knit. Yarn can be dyed in the
form of skeins, muff, packages, cheeses, cakes, chain-wraps, and beams.
DYEING AUXILLARIES: Various substances that can be added to the dyebath to aid dyeing.
They may necessary to transfer the dye from the bath to the fiber or they may provide
improvements in leveling, penetration, etc. Also call dyeing assistants.

DYE RANGE: A broad term referring to the collection of dye and chemical baths, drying
equipment, etc., in a continuous-dyeing line.
DYES: Substances that add color to textiles. They are incorporated into the fiber by chemical
reaction, absorption, or dispersion. Dyes differ in their resistance to sunlight, perspiration,
washing, gas, alkalies, and other agents; their affinity for different fibers; their reaction to
cleaning agents and methods; and their solubility and method of application. Various classes and
types are listed below. [Also see COLOUR INDEX (CI).]
Acid Dyes: A class of dyes used on wool, other animal fibers, and some manufactured fibers.
Acid dyes are seldom used on cotton or linen since this process requires a mordant. Acid dyes
are widely used on nylon when high washfastness is required. In some cases, even higher
washfastness can be obtained by aftertreatment with fixatives.
Aniline Dyes: Dyes derived chemically from aniline or other coal tar derivatives.
Anthraquinone Dyes: Dyes that have anthraquinone as their base and the carbonyl group
(>C=O) as the chromophore. Anthraquinone-based dyes are found in most of the synthetic dye
Azo Dyes: Dyes characterized by the presence of an azo group (-N=N-) as the chromophore.
Azo dyes are found in many of the synthetic dye classes.
Azoic Dyes: See DYES, Naphthol Dyes.
Basic Dyes: A class of positive-ion-carrying dyes known for their brilliant hues. Basic dyes are
composed of large-molecule, water-soluble salts that have a direct affinity for wool and silk and
can be applied to cotton with a mordant. The fastness of basic dyes on these fibers is very poor.
Basic dyes are also used on basic-dyeable acrylics, modacrylics, nylons, and polyesters, on which
they exhibit reasonably good fastness.
Cationic Dyes: See DYES, Basic Dyes.
Developed Dyes: Dyes that are formed by the use of a developer. The substrate is first dyed in a
neutral solution with a dye base, usually colorless. The dye is then diazotized with sodium nitrate
and an acid and afterwards treated with a solution of B-naphthol, or a similar substance, which is
the developer. Direct dyes are developed to produce a different shade or to improve washfastness
or lightfastness.
Direct Dyes: A class of dyestuffs that are applied directly to the substrate in a neutral or alkaline
bath. They produce full shades on cotton and linen without mordanting and can also be applied to
rayon, silk, and wool. Direct dyes give bright shades but exhibit poor washfastness. Various
aftertreatments are used to improve the washfastness of direct dyes, and such dyes are referred to
as “aftertreated direct colors.”
Disperse Dyes: A class of slightly water-soluble dyes originally introduced for dyeing acetate
and usually applied from fine aqueous suspensions. Disperse dyes are widely used for dyeing
most of the manufactured fibers.
Fiber-Reactive Dyes: A type of water-soluble anionic dye having affinity for cellulose fibers. In
the presence of alkali, they react with hydroxyl groups in the cellulose and thus are liked with the

fiber. Fiber-reactive dyes are relatively new dyes and are used extensively on cellulosics when
bright shades are desired.
Gel Dyeing: Passing a wet-spun fiber that is in the gel state (not yet at full crystallinity or
orientation) through a dyebath containing dye with affinity for the fiber. This process provides
good accessibility of the dye sites.
Macromolecular Dyes: A group of inherently colored polymers. They are useful both as
polymers and as dyes with high color yield. The chromophores fit the recognized CI classes, i.e.,
azo, anthraquinone, etc., although not all CI classes are represented. Used for mass dyeing, hair
dyes, writing inks, etc.
Metallized Dyes: A class of dyes that have metals in their molecular structure. They are applied
from an acid bath.
Naphthol Dyes: A type of azo compound formed on the fiber by first treating the fiber with a
phenolic compound. The fiber is then immersed in a second solution containing a diazonuim salt
that reacts with the phenilic compound to produce a colored azo compound. Since the phenolic
compound is dissolved in caustic solution, these dyes are mainly used for cellulose fiber, although
other fibers can be dyed by modifying the process. (Also see DYES, Developed Dyes.)
Premetallized Dyes: Acid dyes that are treated with coordinating metals such as chromium. This
type of dye has much better wetfastness than regular acid dye. Premetallized dyes are used on
nylon, silk, and wool.
Sulfur Dyes: A class of water-insoluble dyes that are applied in a soluble, reduced form from a
sodium sulfide solution and are then reoxidized to the insoluble form on the fiber. Sulfur dyes are
mainly used on cotton for economical dark shades of moderate to good fastness to washing and
light. They generally give very poor fastness to chlorine.
Vat Dyes: A class of water-insoluble dyes which are applied to the fiber in a reduced, soluble
form (leuco compound) and then reoxidized to the original insoluble form. Vat dyes are among
the most resistant dyes to both washing and sunlight. They are widely used on cotton, linen
rayon, and other cellulosic fibers.
DYE SITES: Functional groups within a fiber that provide sites for chemical bonding with the
dye molecule. Dye sites may be either in the polymer chain or in chemical additives included in
the fiber.
DYNAMIC ADHESION: The ability of a cord-to-rubber bond to resist degradation resulting
from flexure.
DYNAPOINT PROCESS: A continuous computer-controlled process for manufacturing tufted
carpets with intricate patterns from undyed yarn. The carpet is dyed as it is tufted and the colors
and pattern are clearly visible through the primary backing of the carpet.


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