Saturday, August 6, 2011

Complete Textile Glossery (G to H)

Learn Apparel Merchandising, Learn Fashion design.
GABARDINE: A firm, durable, warp-faced cloth, showing a
decided twill line, usually a 45° or 63° right-hand twill.
GAITING: The spacing of the needles in the dial and cylinder in
relation to each other on rib (double-knit) and interlock knitting
machines. In rib gaiting, the dial needles are midway between the
cylinder needles. For interlock gaiting the dial and cylinder needles are in direct alignment.
GALATEA: A sturdy, serviceable, warp-effect, five-shaft, left-hand twill-weave fabric,
frequently cotton or a cotton blend, used for children’s play clothes.
GAMMA CELLULOSE: One of the three forms of cellulose. With beta cellulose it is called
hemicellulose. (Also see ALPHA CELLULOSE and BETA CELLULOSE.)
GARNETTING: A process for reducing various textile waste materials to fiber by passing them
through a machine called a garnett, that is similar to a card.
GAS FADING: A change of shade of dyed fabric caused by chemical reaction between certain
disperse dyes and acid gases from fuel combustion, particularly oxides of nitrogen.
GAUGE: 1. A generic term for various measurement instruments such as pressure or thickness
gauges. 2. The number of needles per given distance in a knitting machine. 3. The thickness of
the knitting needle in the shank and the hook. 4. The number of wales per inch in a knit fabric. 5.
On spinning or twisting frames, the distance from the center of one spindle to the center of the
next spindle in the same row.
GAUGE WIRE: Used with an extra filling yarn during weaving, this type of standing wire
controls the height of fabric pile.
GAUZE: A thin, sheer-woven fabric in which each filling yarn in encircled
by two warp yarns twisted around each other, gauze is similar to
cheesecloth. It may by made of silk, cotton, wool, or manufactured fibers.
Cotton gauze is primarily for surgical dressings.
GEAR CRIMPING: See TEXTURING, Gear Crimping Method.
GEL: 1. A colloid in which the dispersed particles have combined with the
continuous phase to produce a viscous, jelly-like product. 2. Degraded polymer occurring in
process lines. Usually seen as specks in polymer or yarn.

GEOGRID: Manufactured polymer constructions characterized by large
openings made by one of the following methods: (1) coating woven or
knit products to form a grid; (2) welding oriented strands to form a grid;
(3) punching holes in flat sheets then drawing them to align the polymer
molecules. Used for soil stabilization, drainage, and erosion control
applications. (Also see GEOTEXTILES.)
GEOTEXTILES: Manufactured fiber products made into fabrics of
various constructions for use in a wide variety of civil engineering
applications including several described below.
Asphalt Overlay Fabrics: Fabric systems installed between the old and new asphalt layers
during pavement resurfacing. The fabric absorbs the tack coat sprayed on the old surface thus
forming a permanent moisture barrier to protect the subgrade from strength loss due to water
intrusion. The fabric system also helps retard reflective cracking by serving as a flexible layer to
diffuse stress.
Drainage Fabrics: Fabrics used as filter media or separators in
subsurface drainage systems. The fabric is installed around the drainage
pipe, or coarse stone in the drain; it allows water to pass freely from the
soil to the drain, but prevents soil particles from migrating into the drain
system. These fabrics are also used as outer coverings in prefabricated
drainage composites and serve the same function as a filtering medium.
Erosion Control Fabrics: Fabrics used in the stabilization of embankments and the containment
of silt run-off from erodible slopes. In embankment stabilization, the fabric functions as a filter
medium behind stabilizing rip-rap revetments. In siltation control, the fabric acts as a filter to
contain silt while allowing excess water to drain freely. In turf reinforcement, the mat is used to
retain soil while allowing roots and stems to grow through. In fabric-forming systems for the
construction of revetments, a double-layer, water-permeable fabricis positioned, then pumped full
of structural grout. These systems are alternatives to rip-rap.
Geomembrane Protection Fabrics: Fabric systems used in the construction of landfills to
protect the membrane liner from puncture and installation damage. The fabric may be installed
on one or both sides of the liner. It can also be used in the leachate collection system since it is
permeable to fluids and gases.
Reinforcement Fabrics: Fabric system used in the construction of steep slopes and retaining
walls. By stabilizing the soil mass, they reduce the stress on the retaining wall with
corresponding decrease in load-bearing requirements for the wall design. In slope reinforcement,
the stabilization permits steeper slope construction than would be possible based on soil
Subsurface Stabilization Fabrics: Fabrics used in the construction
on access roads, railroads, parking and storage areas over soft,
unstable soil. The fabric is placed between the subgrade and the
stabilizing fill material where it provides separation of subsoil and

fill, filtration of moisture at the subsoil/fill interface, and added tensile reinforcement of the
compacted fill.
GINGHAM: A woven fabric characterized by a block or check effect produced by weaving in
dyed yarns at fixed intervals in both the warp and the filling.
GLACÉ: A lustrous, glossy effect imparted to fabrics by finishing.
GLASS FIBER: A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming
substance is glass (FTC definition). In the continuous filament process,
glass marbles are melted in an electric furnace and the liquid flows in
fine streams through small orifices at the bottom of the melting chamber.
The resultant filaments are caught and drawn by a high-speed drawwinding
mechanism. In the staple fiber process, the streams of molten
glass are attenuated into fibers by jets of high-pressure steam or air.
These fibers are gathered on a revolving drum and them wound on tubes
to form staple fiber sliver or bands that can be drafted, twisted, and plied.
CHARACTERISTICS: Glass fiber is incombustible and will tolerate heat
up to 1000°F without material damage. Potential strength is not realized
in woven fabrics or even in yarns, because the fiber is brittle and fracture
points may develop, but nevertheless, very high tensile strength is
obtained in woven fabrics, and is retained at elevated temperatures. The
fiber originally was difficult to color but methods have been developed to
accomplish this. Moisture absorption is low. Electrical and insulation
resistance is high.
END USES: Glass fiber is used for heat and electrical insulation, filter
cloth in the chemical and dye industries, reinforcing belts in tires, novelty
fabrics, tablecloths, and fireproof draperies. Because of its brittleness, it
is not used in wearing apparel or in household fabrics that have to
withstand frequent flexing.
GLAZING: 1. A finishing process that produces a smooth, highly polished, or lustrous surface
on a fabric such as chintz. The fabric is treated with starch, glue, paraffin, or shellac, then friction
calendered. Synthetic resins are used for a more permanent finish. 2. A shiny fabric appearance
produced unintentionally, e.g., by pressing at excessive temperature.
GLOBAL RADIATION: The wavelength distribution of sunlight under a given environment
(e.g., under windowpane glass).
GODET ROLL: Roll used for transporting and controlling the movement of bundles of fibers
and yarns in the processing of these materials.

GOUT: Foreign matter that is accidentally woven into a fabric. It is usually fly or waste that
drops into the loom during weaving or that catches in yarns during spinning.
GRAB STRENGTH TEST: A method for measuring the breaking strength of a fabric sample by
mounting the sample in the tensile tester so that only a part of the width of the specimen is
gripped in the clamps.
GRAFT COPOLYMER: A copolymer having branches of
varying length made up of different monomer units on a
common “backbone” chain.
GRAPHITE FIBER: Although the terms carbon and graphite are used interchangeably to
describe these fibers, graphite fibers are more accurately defined as fibers that are 99+%
carbonized while the term carbon is used for any fiber carbonized to 93 to 95% or more. (See
GREEN TACK: A term used in fabric bonding for the preliminary bond created in the first stage
of curing by the wet adhesive process. At this point, the bond is not fully cured and hence is
GREIGE FABRIC: An unfinished fabric just off the loom or knitting machine.
GRENADINE: 1. A fine, loosely woven fabric in leno weave made with dyed filling yarns and
having a clipped dobby design. 2. A silk cord constructed by twisting together several twisted
GREX: 1. A unit of linear density equal to the weight in grams of 10 kilometers of yarn,
filament, fiber, or other textile strand. 2. The system of yarn numbering based on the use of grex
units. (Also see YARN NUMBER.)
GRINNING: 1. A flaw in fabric, especially a ribbed fabric, that occurs when warp threads show
through the covering filling threads or when the threads have slipped leaving open spaces on
either side. 2. A condition that occurs when the carpet backing shows through the pile. 3. A
printing term referring to either poor cover where the background shade shows through the print,
or to the “two-tone” appearance of a shade printed with incompatible dyes.
GRIPPER LOOMS: Shuttleless looms. These looms employ a projectile with a jaw that grips
the end of the filling yarn during the insertion of the pick.
GROSGRAIN: A heavy fabric with prominent ribs, grosgrain has a dressy appearance and is
used in ribbons, vestments, and ceremonial cloths.
GROUND COLOR: A term describing the plain background color against which a design is

GUIDE BAR: A mechanism on a warp-knitting machine that directs warp threads to the latch
GUIDES: Fittings of various shapes for controlling the path of a threadline.
GUILLOTINE: Cutting device that consists of a single blade that descends between guides for
chopping fibers, plastic strands, etc.
GUM: A term covering a wide range of substances. Strictly, gums are carbohydrate high
polymers, either soluble or dispersible in water, that are derived from vegetable origins. Loosely,
the term gum is used to mean resins, saps, natural rubber, chicle, starch, cellulose derivatives, and
many other products. In textile printing, the term refers to print-paste thickeners.

HAND: The tactile qualities of a fabric, e.g., softness, firmness, elasticity, fineness, resilience,
and other qualities perceived by touch.
HAND-BLOCKED PRINT: A fabric that has been printed by hand with wooden or linoleum
blocks. (Also see PRINTING.)
HANG PICK: A pick that is caught on a warp yarn knot for a short distance which produces a
triangular hole in the fabric. Hang picks usually result from knots that are tied incorrectly, shuttle
tension that is too loose, or harness that is timed too early.
HANK: 1. A skein of yarn. 2. A standard length of slubbing, roving, or yarn. The length is
specified by the yarn numbering system in use; e.g., cotton hanks have a length of 840 yards. 3.
A term applied to slubbing or roving that indicates the yarn number (count); e.g., a 1.5 hank
HARD FIBER: Stiff, elongated fibers obtained from leaves or stems of plants. Coarse and stiff,
they are used in matting and industrial products.
HARDNESS: 1. When used in reference to water, hardness is the total parts per million (ppm) of
calcium an CaCO3 plus the magnesium expressed as equivalent CaCO3 [ppm hardness (as CaCO3)
= (ppm Ca x 2.497 + ppm Mg x 4.116)]. 2. Used in reference to pulp to denote the degree of
HARD SIZE: A condition found in areas of fabric where the warp contains an excessive quantity
of sizing.
HARNESS: A frame holding the heddles in position in the loom during weaving.
HARNESS CHAIN: A mechanism used to control the vertical movements of the harness, or
shaft, on a loom.
HARSH FIBER: Fiber that is rough or coarse to the touch, but not fused or bonded filaments.
HEAD END: 1. The beginning of a new piece of fabric in the loom that bears appropriate
identification. 2. A small sample of fabric that may be submitted to a customer for approval.
HEATHER YARN: A term describing mottled or melange-type yarns.

HEAT RESISTANCE: A property of certain fibers or yarns whereby they resist degradation at
high temperature. Heat resistance may be an inherent property of the fiber-forming polymer or it
may be imparted by additives or treatment during manufacture. (Also see HEAT STABILIZED.)
HEAT-SETTING: The process of conferring dimensional stability and
often other desirable properties such as wrinkle resistance and improved
heat resistance to manufactured fibers, yarns, and fabrics by means of
either moist of dry heat.
HEAT STABILIZED: A term to describe fiber or yarn heat-treated to
reduce the tendency of the fiber to shrink or elongate under load at
elevated temperature. (Also see HEAT RESISTANCE.)
HEAVYEND: 1. The higher boiling fraction in distillation. 2. See
HEDDLE: A cord, round steel wire, or thin flat steel strip with a loop or eye near the center
through which one or more warp threads pass on the loom so that the thread movement may be
controlled in weaving. The heddles are held at both ends by the harness frame. They control the
weave pattern and shed as the harnesses are raised and lowered during weaving.
HELIX ANGLE: 1. The angle formed by the path of a ply and the major axis in a yarn or tire
cord. 2. The angle between the tangent to a yarn and the minor axis of the package on which it is
wound. Also called wind angle.
HEMICELLULOSES: The principal noncellulosic polysaccharides in wood. Wood contains 28
to 35% hemicelluloses, the balance being cellulose and lignin.
HEMP: A coarse, durable bast fiber of Cannabis sativa found all over the world. Used primarily
for twines, cordage, halyards, and tarred riggings.
HERRINGBONE: A broken twill weave characterized by a balanced zigzag effect produced by
having the rib run first to the right and then to the left for an equal number of threads.
HESSIAN: A name for burlap used in the United Kingdom, India, and parts or Europe. (Also
see BURLAP.)
HEXAMETHYLENEDIAMINE: 1,6-diaminohexane, (H2N(CH2)6NH2). It is used in the
polymerization reaction to form nylon 66.
HIGH DENSITY: A term to describe a material with heavier than normal weight per unit
volume. (Also see DENSITY.)

HIGHLOFT: General term for a fiber structure containing more air than fiber. Specifically, a
lofty, low-density nonwoven structure that is used for applications such as fiberfill, insulation,
health care, personal protection and cleaning material.
HIGH-LOW PILE: A pile construction characterized by the
presence of two or more pile heights. High-low pile carpets
sometimes combine looped and cut surface yarns.
HIGH MODULUS: A term that refers to a material with a higher
than normal resistance to deformation. (Also see MODULUS.)
HIGH pH FINISH: A finish, basic in nature rather than acid or neutral, that is applied to yarn or
HIGH-SHRINK STAPLE: Staple with a higher degree of potential shrinkage than regular staple
of the same generic fiber. When blended with regular staple and treated (in yarn or fabric form)
to induce shrinkage, it produces a high degree of bulk in the product.
HIGH TENACITY: A term to describe a material with a higher than normal tensile strength.
(Also see TENACITY.)
HOLES (TOW): In tow opening processes, partial or complete filament breakage within a
confined spread of tow, usually circular or oval in shape. Not to be confused with splitting or
partial crimp deregistration, which are linear.
HOLLAND FINISH: A glazed or unglazed finish containing oil and a filling material. The
finish is applied to cotton fabrics to make them opaque or semiopaque. The resultant fabric
resembles a beetled linen fabric called Holland fabric.
HOLLOW FILAMENT FIBERS: Manufactured, continuous filament fibers, having voids
created by introduction of air or other gas in the polymer solution or by melt spinning through
specially designed spinnerets.
HOMESPUN: Coarse plain-weave fabric of uneven yarns that have a handspun appearance.
HONAN: A pongee-type fabric of the very best Chinese wild silk. Honan is sometimes woven
with blue edges.
HOPSACKING: A coarse, open, basket-weave fabric that gets its name from the plain-weave
fabric of jute or hemp used for sacking in which hops are gathered.

HOT-AIR SHRINKAGE: Generally, the reduction in the dimensions of a fabric, yarn, or fiber
induced by exposure to dry heat. Specifically, a fundamental property of fibers.
HOT-HEAD PRESS: A pressing machine capable of generating high temperatures and
pressures. Used for pressing and processing permanent-press fabrics.
HOT-MELT ADHESIVE: A solid material that melts quickly upon heating, then sets to a firm
bond upon cooling. Use of this type adhesive provides almost instantaneous bonding.
HOUNDSTOOTH: A term describing a medium-sized broken-check
effect; the check is actually a four pointed star.
HUCKABACK: A heavy, serviceable toweling made with slackly
twisted filling yarns to aid absorption. The cloth has a honeycomb
HYBRID COMPOSITE: Advanced composite with a combination
of different high-strength continuous filaments in the matrix. Also,
composite in which continuous and staple fibers are used in the same
HYBRID FABRIC: Fabric for composite manufacture in which two or more different yarns are
used in the fabric construction. This provides design flexibility to meet performance
requirements and controls cost by permitting some lower priced fibers to be used.
HYBRID YARN: In aerospace textiles, a yarn having more than one component. (Also see
HYDROENTANGLING: Process for forming a fabric by mechanically wrapping and knotting
fibers in a web through the use of high-velocity jets or curtains of water. (Also see SPUNLACES
HYDROGENATION: The process of passing hydrogen into an unsaturated chemical in the
presence of a catalyst to convert the material to a more saturated state (i.e., containing more
combined hydrogen.)
HYDROLYSIS: A double decomposition reaction involving the addition of the elements of
water and the formation of an acid and a base, an acid and an alcohol, or an acid and phenol.

HYDROPHILIC: Having strong affinity for or the ability to absorb water.
HYDROPHOBIC: Lacking affinity for or the ability to absorb water.
HYDROSCOPIC: Having the ability to absorb moisture from the atmosphere. All fibers have
this property in varying degrees.
HYDROXYL END GROUP: A polymer chain-terminating (-OH) group.
HYSTERESIS: 1. In tire cord, a measurement of work lost through heat during dynamic
operation. 2. In tensile testing, loss of linear recovery following repeated loading and relaxation.


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