Saturday, August 6, 2011

Complete Textile Glossery (K to L)

Learn Apparel Merchandising, Learn Fashion design.
KAPOK: Short, lightweight cotton-like fibers from the seed pod of trees of the family
Bombacabeae. A very brittle fiber, it is generally not spun. It is used for stuffing cushions,
mattresses, etc., and for life jackets because of its buoyancy and moisture resistance.
KERATIN: The basic protein constituent of wool and other hair fibers.
KERSEY: A heavily fulled or milled woolen fabric having a high lustrous nap and a “grainy”
face, kersey is frequently used in overcoats.
KHAKI: 1. A light yellowish brown. 2. A khaki-colored cloth of cotton, wool, or combinations
of these fibers with manufactured fibers used primarily in military uniforms and workclothes.
KIER: A large metal tank, capable of being heated uniformly, used for
wet processing.
KIER BOILING: Process of boiling cellulosic materials in alkaline
liquors in a kier at or above atmospheric pressure.
KINK: 1. In fabrics, a place where a short length of yarn has
spontaneously doubled back on itself. 2. In yarn, see SNARL.
KINKING: The doubling back of yarn on itself to relieve torque imparted
by twisting or texturing.
KNEE BREAK-OUT TEST: A method to evaluate the performance of fabrics, especially boys’
wear, when subjected to abrasion, stretch, and impact forces under conditions which simulate
ordinary wear at the knee.
KNEEING: Abnormal behavior of a spinning threadline (especially in melt spinning) in which
one or more filaments form an angle (knee).
KNIT-DE-KNIT: See TEXTURING, Knit-de-Knit Method.
KNIT FABRIC: A structure produced by interlooping one or more ends of yarn or comparable
material. (Also see KNITTING.)
KNIT-MISS: A form of tricot knitting in which yarns on each bar of a two-bar machine are knit
at alternate courses only. This type of knitting permits the use of heavy-denier yarns without
creating undesirable bulkiness in the fabric.
KNITTING: A method of constructing fabric by interlocking series of loops of one or more
yarns. The two major classes of knitting are warp knitting and weft knitting, as follows:

1. Warp Knitting: A type of knitting in which the yarns generally run lengthwise in the fabric.
The yarns are prepared as warps on beams with one or more yarns for each needle. Examples of
this type of knitting are tricot, milanese, and raschel knitting.
Milanese Knitting: A type of run-resistant warp knitting with a diagonal rib effect using
several sets of yarns.
Raschel Knitting: A versatile type of warp knitting made in plain and Jacquard patterns;
the latter can be made with intricate eyelet and lacy patterns and is often used for
underwear fabrics. Raschel fabrics are coarser than other warp-knit fabrics, but a wide
range of fabrics can be made. Raschel knitting machines have one or two sets of latch
needles and up to thirty sets of guides.
Tricot Knitting: A run-resistant type of warp knitting in which either single or double
sets of yarn are used. (Also see TRICOT.)
2. Weft Knitting: A common type of knitting, in which one continuous thread runs crosswise in
the fabric making all of the loops in one course. Weft knitting types are circular and flat knitting.
Circular Knitting: The fabric is produced on the knitting machine in the form of a tube,
the threads running continuously around the fabric.
Flat Knitting: The fabric is produced on the knitting machine in flat form, the threads
alternating back and forth across the fabric. The fabric can be given shape in the knitting
process by increasing or decreasing loops. Full-fashioned garments are made on a flatknitting
machine. (Also see FLAT-KNIT FABRIC.)
KRAFTCORD: This yarn produced by tightly twisting plant fiber is sometimes used in carpet
KRAFT PULPS: Pulps prepared in the alkaline liquor consisting of sodium hydroxide, sodium
carbonate, and sodium sulfide. Also called sulfate pulp.
KRAFT YARN: A yarn made by twisting a strip of paper manufactured from kraft pulp.
KROY® SHRINKPROOFING PROCESS: Continuous process for shrinkproofing wool tops
in which there is a direct chlorination step with no intervening chemical reaction followed by
anti-chlorination and neutralization. Provides better hand and strength than does conventional
KUSTERS DYEING RANGE: Continuous dye range for carpets. The
unit wets the carpet, applies dyes and auxiliary chemicals by means of a
doctor blade, fixes the dyes in a festoon steamer, and washes and dries
the carpet in one pass through the range. An optional auxiliary unit may
be installed to randomly drip selected dyes onto the background shade for
special styling effects. This process is called TAK dyeing.


LACE: Ornamental openwork fabric, made in a variety of designs by intricate manipulation of
the fiber by machine or by hand.
LACE STITCH: In this knitting stitch structure, loops are transferred
from the needles on which they are made to adjacent needles to create
a fabric with an open or a raised effect.
LAID-IN FABRIC: A knit fabric in which an effect yarn is tucked
in, not knitted into, the fabric structure. The laid-in yarns are held in
position by the knitted yarns.
LAMÉ: A fabric woven with flat metal threads, usually silver or
gold, that form either the background or the pattern.
LAMINAR FLOW: Streamline flow in a viscous fluid, such as
molten polymer, near a solid boundary.
LAMINATED FABRIC: 1. Fabric composed of a high-strength
reinforcing scrim or base fabric between two plies of flexible
thermoplastic film. Usually open scrims are used to permit the
polymer to flow through the interstices and bond during calendering.
LAP: A continuous, considerably compressed sheet of fibers that is rolled under pressure into a
cylindrical package, usually weighing between 40 and 50 pounds. The lap is used to supply the
LAPPING: A term describing the movement of yarn guides between needles, at right angles to
the needle bar, or laterally in relation to the needle bar, or laterally in relation to the needle bar
during warp knitting.
LAP SPLITTING: A condition caused by a lap that will not unwind in carding in the same
thickness as it was wound in picking. This splitting of the sheet of fiber can result in either a
thicker or thinner sheet being fed into the card.

LASE: An acronym for load at specified elongation: the load required to produce a given
elongation of a yarn or cord.
LASER: A device for producing an intense beam of coherent light. It is used for cutting,
spectroscopy, photography, biomedical investigations, etc.
LASTRILE FIBER: A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is a copolymer
of acrylonitrile and a diene composed of at least 10% by weight, but not more than 50% by
weight, of acrylonitrile [-CH2-CH(CN)-] units (FTC definition).
LATCH NEEDLE: One of the two types of knitting machine needles. The latch
needle has a small terminal hook with a latch that pivots automatically in knitting
to close the hook. The fabric loop is cast off. The latch then opens, allowing a
new loop to be formed by the hook, and loop-forming and casting-off proceed
simultaneously. (Also see SPRING NEEDLE..)
LATENT CRIMP: Crimp in fibers that can be developed by a specific
treatment. Fibers are prepared specially to crimp when subjected to specific
conditions, e.g., tumbling in a heated chamber or wet processing.
LATEX: A milky fluid found in certain cells of some families of seed plants.
Latex is the raw material from which rubber is made.
LAWN: A light, thin cloth made of carded or combed yarns, this fabric is given a creaseresistant,
crisp finish. Lawn is crisper than voile but not as crisp as organdy.
LEA: 1. One-seventh of an 840-yard cotton hank, i.e., 120 yards. 2. A standard skein with 80
revolutions of 1.5 yards each (total length of 120 yards). It is used for strength tests. 3. A unit of
measure, 300 yards, used to determine the yarn number of linen yarn. The number of leas in one
pound is the yarn number.
LEACHING: The removal of any substance or dye from textiles by the percolating action of a
suitable liquid.
LENO WEAVE: A weave in which the warp yarns are arranged in pairs
with one twisted around the other between picks of filling yarn as in
marquisette. This type of weave gives firmness and strength to an openweave
fabric and prevents slippage and displacement of warp and filling

LET-OFF MOTION: A device for controlling the delivery and tension of the warp during
LEVELING: Migration leading to uniform distribution of dye in a dyed material. Leveling may
be a property of the dye or it may require chemical assistance.
LEVEL LOOP: A term describing a tufted or woven carpet with uncut, equal length loops
composing the pile surface.
LICKERIN: A part of the feed mechanism of the card. It consists of a hollow, metal roll with a
spirally grooved surface containing a special saw-toothed wire. The lickerin opens up the tufts of
the picker lap as it is fed to the card and transfers the fibers to the main cylinder.
LICKERIN LOADING: A condition whereby fibers are imbedded in the lickerin wire clothing
so as to resist transfer to the cylinder clothing.
LIGHT END: 1. The low boiling fraction in distillation. 2. See FINE END, 1.
LIGHTFASTNESS: The degree of resistance of dyed textile materials to the color-destroying
influence of sunlight. Two methods of testing are in use: (1) exposure to sunlight, either directly
or under glass, and (2) accelerated testing in a laboratory apparatus equipped with any of several
types of artificial light sources.
LIGNIN: The major noncarbohydrate portion of wood. It is an amorphous polymeric substance
that cements the fibrous portions together.
LIMITING OXYGEN INDEX: A relative measure of flammability that is determined as
follows. A sample is ignited in an oxygen/nitrogen atmosphere. The oxygen content is adjusted
until the minimum required to sustain steady burning is found. The higher the value, the lower
the flammability.
LINEAR DENSITY: Mass per unit length expressed as grams per centimeter, pounds per foot,
or equivalent units. It is the quotient obtained by dividing the mass of a fiber or yarn by its
LINEN: Cellulosic fibers derived from the stem of the flax plant or a fabric made from these
fibers. Linen fibers are much stronger and more lustrous that cotton; they yield cool, absorbent
fabrics that wrinkle easily. Fabrics with linen-like texture and coolness but with good wrinkle
resistance can be produced from manufactured fibers and blends.
LINEN LEA: The number of 300-yard hanks contained in one pound.
LINET: A French-make lining fabric of unbleached linen.
LINING FABRIC: Fabric that is used to cover inner surfaces, especially when the inner surface
is of a different material than the outer. May refer to garment lining, lining for boxes, coffins,
etc. Generally of smooth, lustrous appearing fabrics, but also of felt and velvet. Both
manufactured fibers and natural fibers are used.

LINKED PROCESSES: Refers to the connection of the various steps of fiber-to-yarn
processing via pneumatic fiber-transport systems, on-line monitoring, and process control.
Process linking results in less labor-intensive processing. A typical linked system might include
all stages from bale opening through carding.
LINON A JOUR: A gauze-like linen fabric used as dress goods.
LINT: Particles and short fibers that fall from a textile product during the stresses of use.
LINTERS: The short cotton fibers that are not removed from the seed during the first ginning.
The linters are cut from the seed and used as a source for cellulose derivatives such as
nitrocellulose or viscose rayon.
LIQUID CRYSTAL: A liquid in which the molecules are oriented parallel to each other
resulting in birefringence and interference patterns visible in polarizing light.
LIQUID CRYSTAL POLYMER: Polymers such as aramids or the thermotropic polyesters that
form liquid crystals when in the appropriate state, (concentrated solution or melt). Most liquid
crystal polymers have in their structure a succession of para-ring structures. The liquid crystal
formation is thought to relate to the fact that there is a limiting concentration of rod-like chains
that can exist in a random arrangement in a solution or melt. Once this concentration is reached,
ordering or alignment of the chains in necessary to accommodate them. Fibers from liquid crystal
polymers generally have high modulus and tenacity, good chemical resistance, and hightemperature
resistance. They are used in a wide range of applications including protective
apparel, tire cord, composites, ropes and cables, etc.
LIQUOR RATIO: In wet processing the ratio of the weight of liquid used to the weight of goods
LISLE YARN: A high-quality cotton yarn made by plying yarns spun from long combed staple.
Lisle is singed to hive it a smooth finish.
LOAD-DEFORMATION CURVE: A graphical representation of the relationship between the
change in dimension (in the direction of the applied force) of the specimen resulting from the
application of an external load, and the magnitude of that load. The load may be expressed in
units of weight (such as pounds or kilograms) and the deformation in either units of length (such
as inches or millimeters) in tension or compression tests, or degrees in shear tests. In a tension
test, a load-deformation curve becomes a load-elongation curve.

LOFT: The properties of firmness, resilience, and bulk of a fiber batting, yarn, fabric, or other
textile material.
LONG STAPLE: A long fiber. In reference to cotton, long staple indicates a fiber length of not
less that 1-1/8 inches. In reference to wool, the term indicates fiber 3 to 4 inches long suitable for
LOOM: A machine for weaving fabric by interlacing a series of vertical, parallel threads (the
warp) with a series of horizontal, parallel threads (the filling). The warp yarns from a beam pass
through the heddles and reed, and the filling is shot through the “shed” of warp threads by means
of a shuttle or other device and is settled in place by the reed and lay. The woven fabric is then
wound on a cloth beam. The primary distinction between different types of looms is the manner
of filling insertion (see WEFT INSERTION, 1). The principal elements of any type of loom are
the shedding, picking, and beating-up devices. In shedding, a path is formed for the filling by
raising some warp threads while others are left down. Picking consists essentially of projecting
the filling yarn from one side of the loom to the other. Beating-up forces the pick, that has just
been left in the shed, up to the fell of the fabric. This is accomplished by the reed, which is
brought forward with some force by the lay. (Also see JACQUARD.)
LOOM BARRÉ: A repeated unevenness in the fabric, usually running from selvage to selvage,
and caused by uneven let-off or take-up or by a loose crank arm.
LOOM-FINISHED: A term describing fabric that is sold in the condition in which it comes
from the loom.
LOOM FLY: Waste fibers that are inadvertently woven into a fabric.
LOOPED FILLING: A woven-in loop caused by the filling sloughing off the quill or by the
shuttle rebounding in the box.
LOOPED PILE: A pile surface made of uncut looped yarns.
LOOP ELONGATION: The maximum extension of a looped yarn at
maximum load, expressed as a percentage of the original gauge length.

LOOPING: Generally, a method of uniting knit fabrics by joining two courses of loops on a
machine called a looper.
LOOPING BAR: A bar inserted in the bottom of an extrusion metier around which the dried
filaments pass as they leave the spinning cabinet.
LOOP PILE: Carpet construction in which the tufts are formed into loops from the supply yarn.
LOOP TENACITY: The strength of a compound strand formed when one strand of yarn is
looped through another strand, then broken. It is the breaking load in grams divided by twice the
measured yarn denier or decitex. Loop tenacity, when compared with standard tenacity
measurements, is an indication of the brittleness of a fiber.
LOOPY SELVAGE: A weaving defect at the selvage of excessive thickness or irregular filling
loops that extend beyond the outside selvages.
LOOSE FILLING: A fabric defect that is usually seen as short, loose places in the filling caused
by too little tension on the yarn in the shuttle or by the shuttle rebounding in the box. Loose
filling can often be felt by an examiner when passing a hand over the surface of the fabric.
LOST END: An end on a section or tricot beam that has been broken at some stage in warping
and has not been repaired by a knot.
LOT: A unit of production or a group of other units or packages that is taken for sampling or
statistical examination, having one or more common properties and being readily separable from
other similar units.
LOW ROWS: A carpet defect characterized by rows of unusually low pile height across the
width of the goods.
LUANA: A fabric characterized by a crosswise rib effect, usually made with a filament yarn
warp and a spun yarn filling.
LUBRICANT: An oil or emulsion finish applied to fibers to prevent damage during textile
processing or to knitting yarns to make them more pliable.
LUMINESCENCE: Emission of light not caused by incandescence but rather by physiological
processes, chemical action, friction or electrical action. (See both FLUORESCENCE and

LUSTER: The quality of shining with reflected light. With reference to textile materials, the
term is frequently associated with the adjectives bright or dull to distinguish between varieties of
manufactured fibers.
LUSTERING: The finishing of yarn or fabric by means of heat, pressure, steam, friction,
calendering, etc., to produce luster.
LYOCELL FIBER: A manufacturing cellulose fiber made by direct dissolution of wood pulp in
an amine oxide solvent, N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide. The clear solution is extruded into a
dilute aqueous solution of amine oxide, which precipitates the cellulose in the form of filaments.
The fiber is then washed before it is dried and finished.
The solvent spinning process for making lyocell fiber is considered to be environmentally
friendly because the non-toxic spinning solvent is recovered, purified, and recycled as an integral
part of the manufacturing process. No chemical intermediates are formed, the minimal waste in
not hazardous, and energy consumption is low. Wood pulp is a renewable resource, and the fiber
is biodegradable.
CHARACHTERISTICS: Lyocell fiber is stronger than other cellulosic fibers. It is inherently
absorbent, having a water imbibition of 65%-75%. Lyocell retains 85% of its dry tenacity when
wet, making it stronger when wet than cotton. The fiber has a density of 1.15 g/cm3.
END USES: Lyocell fiber is suitable for blending with cotton or other manufactured fibers.
Because of its molecular structure, lyocell has the tendency to develop surface fibrils that can be
beneficial in the manufacture of hydroentabled and other nonwovens, and in specialty papers.
For apparel uses, the fiber’s unique fibrillation characteristic has enabled the development of
fabrics with a soft luxurious hand. The degree of fibrillation is controlled by cellulose enzyme
LYOTROPIN POLYMER: Polymers that decompose before melting but that form liquid
crystals in solution under appropriate condition. They can be extruded from high concentration
dopes to give fibers of high modulus and orientation for use in advanced composites, tire cord,
ballistic protective devices, etc.


No comments:

Post a Comment

Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...