Saturday, August 6, 2011

Complete Textile Glossery (M to N)

Learn Apparel Merchandising, Learn Fashion design.
MACE SNAG TEST: A test for evaluation of snagging performance. A
fabric sample is mounted on a revolving drum in contact with a miniature
mace that tracks randomly across the sample. The spikes of the mace effect
the snagging. The test predicts results in actual wear.
MACHINE DIRECTION: The long direction within the place of the
fabric, i.e., the direction in which the fabric is being produced by the
MACHINE TWIST: A hard-twist sewing thread, usually of 3-ply
construction spun with S twists and plied with Z twist, especially made for
use in sewing machines.
MACROLATTICE: A repeating structure in very small microfibrils of
alternating crystalline and amorphous regions. Yarn properties are thought to
be governed by morphology at the macrolattice scale.
MADRAS: A lightweight, plain weave fabric with a striped, checked, or plaid pattern. True
madras is “guaranteed to bleed.”
MALLORY FATIGUE TEST: A test to measure the endurance properties of tire cord.
MANDRELL: The core around which the impregnated filaments are placed to form a specified
shape in composite manufacture.
MANILA: Fiber obtained from the leaf stalks of the abaca plant. It is generally used for cordage.
MANUFACTURED FIBER: A class name for various genera of fibers (including filaments)
produced from fiber-forming substances which may be: (1) polymers synthesized from chemical
compounds, e.g., acrylic, nylon, polyester, polyethylene, polyurethane, and polyvinyl fibers; (2)
modified or transformed natural polymers, e.g., alginic and cellulose-based fibers such as acetates
and rayons; and (3) minerals, e.g., glasses. The term manufactured usually refers to all
chemically produced fibers to distinguish them from the truly natural fibers such as cotton, wool,
silk, flax, etc.
MARKER: In the floor coverings industry, a distinctive threadline in the back of a carpet that
enables the installer to assemble breadths of carpet so that the pile lays in one direction or so that
patterns match.

MARL YARN: A yarn made from two rovings of contrasting colors drafted together, then spun.
Provides a mottled effect.
MARQUISETTE: A lightweight, open-mesh fabric made of cotton, silk, or manufactured fibers
in a leno, doup, or gauze weave. Marquisettes are used for curtains, dresses, mosquito nets, and
similar end uses.
MARRIED FIBER CLUMP: A defect that occurs in converter top. It consists of a group of
unopened, almost coterminous fibers with the crimp in register.
MATELASSÉ: A soft, double or compound fancy-woven fabric with a quilted appearance.
Heavier types are used as draperies and upholsteries. Crepe matelassé is used for dresses, wraps,
and other apparel. Matelassé is usually woven on a Jacquard loom.
MATERIAL BALANCE: A mathematical representation of material flow through a reaction
system. The input material is accounted for throughout its various transformations.
MATRIX FIBER: 1. A manufactured fiber that is essentially a physical combination or mixture
of two or more chemically distinct constituents or components combined at or prior to the time of
extrusion (i.e., produced in fiber form), which components if separately extruded would each fall
within different definitions of textile fiber. (FTC definition). Matrix fibril fibers have the fibril
constituent randomly arranged across the cross section of the matrix. When the fibril component
is in high concentration it may actually form a fibrillar network in the matrix. 2. In aerospace
textiles, a thermoplastic fiber used with reinforcing fiber to form a composite after consolidation
with heat and pressure. 3. In nonwovens manufacture, fibers that are blended with low-melt
fibers to form a thermally bonded fabric.
MATTED STAPLE: Fiber in the bale that is compressed and entangled in a manner indicating
that the fiber was either too wet at the baling operation or that excessive baling pressure was used.
MECHANICAL FINISHING: Changing the appearance or physical properties of a fabric by a
mechanical process such as calendering, embossing, bulking, compacting, or creping.
MELDED FABRIC: A nonwoven fabric of a base fiber and a thermoplastic fiber. The web is
hot-calendered or embossed at the softening point of the thermoplastic fiber to form the bond.
MELT: A material in the molten state.
MELT BLOWING: The formation of a
nonwoven by extruding molten polymer
through a die then attenuating and
breaking the resulting filaments with hot,
high-velocity air or steam. This results in
short fiber lengths. The short fibers are then collected on a moving screen where they bond
during cooling.

MELT-DYED: See DYEING, Mass-Colored.
MELT INDEX: The weight in grams of a thermoplastic material that can be forced through a
standard orifice within a specified time.
MELTING POINT: The temperature at which the solid and liquid states of a substance are in
equilibrium; generally, the temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid.
MELTON: A heavily fulled, hard, plain coating fabric that was originally all wool but is now
also seen in wool blends.
MELT VISCOSITY: The resistance of molten polymer to shear deformation. It is primarily a
factor of intrinsic viscosity and temperature. It is an apparent polymer viscosity measurement in
that it is only true at a specific shear stress and shear rate combination.
MENDING: A process in woven fabric manufacture in which weaving imperfections, tears,
broken yarns, and similar defects are repaired after weaving; especially on woolen and worsted
fabrics to prepare them for dyeing, finishing, or other processing.
MERCERIZATION: A treatment of cotton yarn or fabric to increase its luster and affinity for
dyes. The material is immersed under tension in a cold sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) solution
in warp or skein form or in the piece, and is later neutralized in acid. The process causes a
permanent swelling of the fiber and thus increases its luster.
MERGE: A group to which fiber production is assigned based on properties and dyeability. All
fibers within a merge can be expected to behave uniformly, and for this reason, can be mixed or
used interchangeably.
MERINO: 1. Wool from purebred Merino sheep. Merino wool usually has a mean fiber
diameter of 24 microns or less. 2. A yarn of blended wool and cotton fibers.
MESH FABRICS: A broad term for fabric characterized by open spaces between the yarns.
Mesh fabrics may be woven, knit, lace, net, crochet, etc.
META: A chemical prefix, usually abbreviated m, that denotes that two substituents on a
benzene ring are separated by one carbon atom.
METALLIC FIBER: A manufactured fiber composed of metal, plastic-coated metal, metalcoated
plastic, or a core completely covered by metal (FTC definition). They are available in
“yarn” form as well as in staple form for spinning with other fibers. A core yarn with a metal
surface is produced by twisting a strip of metal around yarn of natural or manufactured fibers.
The most important characteristic of metallic fiber and the chief reason for its use in textiles is
glitter. Metallic fibers are used as a decorative accent in fabrics for apparel, bedspreads, towels,
draperies, and upholstery. A relatively new application for metallic fibers is in carpet pile, where
they are being used in small percentages for control of static electricity.

METAMERIC COLOR MATCH: A color match between two materials in which the colors
are identical under some lighting conditions but not under others. Metameric color matches are
common when different pigments or dyestuffs are used to color the two materials.
METAP WEAVE-KNIT PROCESS: A technique combining weaving and knitting in one
operation with two independent yarn systems wound on warp beams. In the fabrics produced,
woven strips are linked together with wales of stitches. Generally, the fabrics have 75-85%
woven and 25-15% knitted structure.
METERING PUMP: A positive displacement device that pumps a measured amount of polymer
solution to the spinnerets.
METIER: A spinning machine for producing manufactured fibers. The bank of cells or
compartments and associated equipment used in the dry spinning of fibers, such as cellulose
acetate and cellulose triacetate.
METIER TWIST: The amount of twist present in yarn wound at the metier.
METRIC COUNT: The number of kilometers per kilogram of yarn.
MICRODENIER: Refers to fibers having less than 1 denier per filament or 0.1 tex per filament.
MICROENCAPSULATION: Enclosing materials in capsules of less than one micron to over
2000 microns in diameter. These can contain polymer additives that can then be released under
certain conditions of use or processing.
MICRONAIRE METHOD: A means of measuring fiber fineness by determining the resistance
of a sample to a flow of air forced through it.
MIGRATION: 1. Movement of dye from one area of dyed fabric to another. Includes
movement of color from the dyed area to the undyed area of cloth. 2. Movement of fibers which
go from the center to the outside surface of yarn and back again periodically.
MIL: A unit of length, 0.001 inch, commonly used for measuring the diameter of wires and
textile monofilaments.
MILDEW: A whitish growth caused by spore-forming fungi that grow in a warm, moist,
confined atmosphere. The formation of mildew may cause discoloration, tendering, or variation
in dyeing properties in cellulosic fiber.
MILDEW RESISTANCE: The degree to which fabrics are unaffected by certain fungi that
cause odor and discoloration.
MILL END: A remnant or short length of finished fabric.

MILLING: 1. The process of treating fabric in a fulling mill, i.e., fulling. 2. In silk
manufacturing the twisting of the filaments into yarn. 3. A grinding process, i.e., ball-milling of
dyes and pigments.
MILL RUN: A yarn, fabric, or other textile product that has not been inspected or that does not
come up to the standard quality.
MINERAL FIBERS: A generic term for all non-metallic, inorganic fibers, which may be
natural, such as asbestos, or manufactured from such sources as rock, ore, alloys, slag, or glass.
MINIMUM CARE: A term describing home laundering methods. Minimum care fabrics,
garments, and household textile articles can be washed satisfactorily by normal home laundering
methods and can be used or worn after light ironing. Light ironing denotes ironing without
starching or dampening and with a relatively small expenditure of physical effort.
MISPICK: A weaving defect in which a pick is improperly interlaced, resulting in a break in the
weave pattern. Mispicks can result from starting the loom on the incorrect pick after a pick-out.
MISS-STITCH: A knitting construction formed when the needle holds the old loop and does not
receive new yarn. It connects two loops of the same course that are not in adjacent wales. Also
known as float-stitch.
MIXED END or FILLING: Warp or filling yarn differing from that normally used in the fabric,
e.g., yarn with the incorrect twist or number of plies, yarn of the wrong color, or yarn from the
wrong lot.
MOCK DYEING: A heat stabilization process for yarns. The yarns
are wound onto packages and subjected to package dyeing conditions
(water, pressure, temperature) but without dye an chemicals in the
MOCK LENO: A combination of weaves having interlacings that
tend to form the warp ends into groups (with empty spaces
intervening) in the cloth, thereby giving an imitation of the open
structure that is characteristic of leno fabrics. Mock leno fabrics are
used for summer shirts, dresses, and other apparel, and as a shading
medium in Jacquard designs.
MODACRYLIC FIBER: A manufactured fiber in which the fiberforming
substance is any long chain synthetic polymer composed of
less that 85% but at least 35% by weight of acrylonitrile units (FTC
definition). Both wet and dry spinning are used.
CHARACTERISTICS: Although modacrylics are similar to acrylics
in properties and application, certain important differences exist.
Modacrylics have superior resistance to chemicals and combustion,
but they are more heat sensitive (lower safe ironing temperature) and

have a higher specific gravity (less cover).
END USES: The principal applications of modacrylic fibers are in pile fabrics, flame-retardant
garments, draperies, and carpets.
MODULUS: The ratio of change in stress to change in strain following the removal of crimp
from the material being tested; i.e., the ratio of the stress expressed in either force per unit linear
density or force per unit area of the original specimen, and the strain expressed as either a fraction
of the original length or percentage elongation. (Also see YOUNG’S MODULUS.)
MOIRÉ: A wavy or watered effect on a textile fabric, especially a corded fabric of silk, rayon, or
one of the manufactured fibers. Moiré is produced by passing the fabric between engraved
cylinders which press the design into the material, causing the crushed and uncrushed parts to
reflect light differently.
MOISTURE-FREE WEIGHT: 1. The constant weight of a specimen obtained by drying at a
temperature of 105°C in a current of desiccated air. 2. The weight of a dry substance calculated
from an independent determination of moisture content (e.g., by distillation with an immiscible
solvent or by titration with Fischer reagent).
MOISTURE PROPERTIES: All fibers when exposed to the atmosphere pick up some
moisture; the quantity varies with the fiber type, temperature, and relative humidity.
Measurements are generally made at standard conditions, which are fixed at 65% RH and 70°F.
Moisture content of a fiber or yarn is usually expressed in terms of percentage regain after partial
MOISTURE REGAIN: The percentage of moisture in a textile material brought into
equilibrium with a standard atmosphere after partial drying, calculated as a percentage of the
moisture-free weight. (Also see STANDARD MOISTURE REGAIN.)
MOLESKIN: A heavy sateen-weave fabric made with heavy, soft-spun filling yarns. The fabric
is sheared and napped to produce a suede effect.
MONK’S CLOTH: A rough, substantial, rather bulky fabric made of very coarse yarn in a 4-
and-4 or similar basket-weave construction.
MONOFILAMENT: Any single filament of a manufactured fiber, usually of a denier higher
than 14. Instead of a group of filaments being extruded through a spinneret to form a yarn,
monofilaments generally are spun individually. Monofilaments can be used for textiles such as
hosiery or sewing thread or for nontextile uses such as bristles, papermaker’s felts, fishing lines,
MONOMER: The simple, unpolymerized form of a compound from which a polymer can be
MORDANT: A chemical used in some textile fibers to provide affinity for dyes.

MORESQUE: A multicolored yarn formed by twisting or plying single strands of different
MORPHOLOGY: The study of the fine structure of a fiber or other material.
MOTE: A small piece of seed or vegetable matter in cotton. Motes are removed by boiling the
fiber or fabric in sodium hydroxide, then bleaching. When not removed, they can leave a dark
spot in the fabric.
MUFF: A loose skein of textured yarn prepared for dyeing or bulking. In the bulking operation,
the yarn contracts and the resulting skein resembles a muff.
MULE SPINNING FRAME: A spinning machine invented by Samuel Crompton in 1782 and
termed “mule” because it was a combination of the machines invented by Arkwright and
Hargreaves. It was once widely used for spinning wool and to a lesser extent for very fine counts
of cotton yarn. Its action was intermittent and slower than that of the more current ring spinning
frame. It drew out and twisted a length of yarn and then wound it in the form of a cop, or bobbin,
then repeated the cycle. (Also see SPINNING FRAME.)
MULLEN BURSTING STRENGTH: An instrumental test method that measures the ability of
a fabric to resist rupture by pressure exerted by an inflated diaphragm.
MULTIFILAMENT: A yarn consisting of many continuous filaments or strands, as opposed to
monofilament which is one strand. Most textile filament yarns are multifilament.
MUSHROOM TEST: See FLAMMABILITY TESTS, Mushroom Apparel Flammability Test.
MUSLIN: A broad term describing a wide variety of plain-weave cotton or polyester/cotton
fabrics ranging from lightweight sheers to heavier shirting and sheeting.
MUSSINESS: A fabric defect on the surface that is characterized by undesirable unevenness
caused by many minor deformations. Mussiness is independent of the presence of soil.

NAINSOOK: A fine, lightweight, plain-weave fabric, usually of combed cotton. The fabric is
often mercerized to produce luster and is finished soft. Nainsook is chiefly used for infants’
wear, lingerie, and blouses.
NAP: A downy surface given to a cloth when part of the fiber is raised from the basic structure.
NAPHTHALENE: A solid aromatic hydrocarbon (C10H8) derived from coal tar. Naphthalene is
used as moth flakes and as the basis of certain dye components.
NAPPING: A finishing process that raises the surface fibers of a fabric by means of passage over
rapidly revolving cylinders covered with metal points or teasel burrs. Outing, flannel, and wool
broadcloth derive their downy appearance from this finishing process. Napping is also used for
certain knit goods, blankets, and other fabrics with a raised surface.
NARROW FABRIC: Any nonelastic woven fabric, 12 inches or less in width, having a selvage
on either side, except ribbon and seam binding.
NATURAL FIBER: A class name for various genera of fibers (including filaments) of: (1)
animal (i.e., silk and wool); (2) mineral (i.e., asbestos); or (3) vegetable origin (i.e., cotton, flax,
jute, and ramie).
NECKING: 1. The sudden reduction in the diameter of an undrawn
manufactured filament when it is stretched. 2. Narrowing in width of a
fabric or film when it is stretched.
NEEDLE: 1. A thin, metal device, usually with an eye at one end for inserting the thread, used in
sewing to transport the thread. 2. The portion of a knitting machine used for intermeshing the
loops. Several types of knitting needles are available. (Also see SPRING NEEDLE and LATCH
NEEDLE.) 3. In nonwovens manufacture, a barbed metal device used for punching the web’s
own fibers vertically through the web.
NEEDLE BED: Flat metal plate with slots at regular intervals in which the knitting needles slide
on the knitting machine.
NEEDLED FABRICS: The product of the needle loom (q.v.). Needled fabrics are used for rug
pads, papermaker’s felts, padding, linings, etc.
NEEDLE LOOM: A machine for bonding a
nonwoven web by mechanically orienting
fibers through the web. The process is called
needling, or needlepunching. Barbed needles
set into a board punch fiber into the batt and
withdraw, leaving the fibers entangled. The
needles are spaced in a nonaligned

arrangement. By varying the strokes per minute, the advance rate of the batt, the degree of
penetration of the needles, and the weight of the batt, a wide range of fabric densities can be
made. For additional strength, the fiber web can be needled to a woven, knit, or bonded fabric.
Bonding agents may also be used.
NEEDLE LOOP: A loop of yarn drawn through a loop made previously.
NEEDLEPUNCHING: The process of converting batts or webs of loose fibers into a coherent
nonwoven fabric on a needle loom (q.v.).
NEEDLE SET-OUT: A term that refers to long periods of time when certain needles are
removed from the knitting cycle. The process is used to make sweater cuffs.
NEEDLE SLOT: A groove that houses a needle in the cylinder or dial of a circular-knitting
machine or the needle bed of a flat-bed machine.
NEP: A small knot of entangled fibers that usually will not straighten to a parallel position during
carding or drafting.
NET: An open fabric made by knotting the intersections of thread,
cord, or wires to form meshes. Net can be made by hand or machine in
a variety of mesh sizes and weights matched to varying end uses, i.e.,
veils, curtains, fish nets, and heavy cargo nets.
NET RATE: In a fiber production process the total throughput less
waste and inferior or off-grade material.
NETTING: The process of knotting threads into meshes that will not
NEUTRON-ABSORBING FIBER: Polyethylene fiber modified with
boron used in the nuclear industry for reducing neutron transmission.
NINON: A lightweight fabric of silk or manufactured fibers made in a
plain weave with an open mesh. Used for curtains and evening wear.
NIP: 1. The line or area of contact between two contiguous rollers. 2.
A defect in yarn consisting of a thin place.
NIP CREASES: Creases occurring at regular intervals along a fabric selvage subsequent to a
nipping operation such as calendering or padding. Such creases are caused by a loosely wound
selvage or improper let-off tension which allows the fabric to fold over or gather at the selvage
prior to entering the nip of the rolls.
NOIL: A short fiber that is rejected in the combing process of yarn manufacture.
NONELASTIC WOVEN TAPE: A woven narrow fabric, weighing less than 15 ounces per
square yard, made principally of natural and/or manufactured fibers, including monofilaments,
but not containing rubber or other similar elastic stands.

NONWOVEN FABRIC: An assembly of textile fibers held together by mechanical interlocking
in a random web or mat, by fusing of the fibers (in the case of thermoplastic fibers), or by
bonding with a cementing medium such as starch, glue, casein, rubber, latex, or one of the
cellulose derivatives or synthetic resins. Initially, the fibers may be oriented in one direction or
may be deposited in a random manner. This web or sheet of fibers is bonded together by one of
the methods described above. Normally, crimped fibers that range in length from 0.75 to 4.5
inches are used.
Nonwoven fabrics are used for expendable items such as hospitable sheets, napkins, diapers,
wiping cloths, as the base material for coated fabrics, and in a variety of other applications. They
can also be used for semi-disposable items and for permanent items such as interlinings.
NOVELTY YARN: A yarn produced for a special effect. Novelty yarns are usually uneven in
size, varied in color, or modified in appearance by the presence of irregularities deliberately
produced during their formation. In singles yarns, the irregularities may be caused by inclusion
of knots, loops, curls, slubs, and the like. In plied yarns, the irregularities may be effected by
variable delivery of one or more yarn components or by twisting together dissimilar singles yarns.
Nub and slub are examples of novelty yarns.
NOVOLOID FIBER: A manufactured fiber containing at least 85% by weight of a cross-linked
novolac (FTC definition). Novoloid is flame resistant and nonmelting. Its primary use is in
flame-protective garments and products.
NOZZLE: 1. The spout through which something is discharged, i.e., oil in finish application or
fibers in web laying. 2. A term sometimes used to refer to spinnerets.
NUB YARN: A novelty yarn containing slubs, beads, or lumps introduced intentionally.
NUCLEATION: A process by which crystals are formed. Crystals form initially on minute
traces of foreign substances that act as the nucleus, then grow by external
NUN’S VEILING: A soft, lightweight, plain-weave fabric that usually
comes in black and white, nun’s veiling is a rather flimsy, open fabric but
always of high quality. It may be made from fine woolen yarn or yarns
spun from manufactured fibers such as nylon, acrylic, or polyester.
NYLON FIBER: A manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming
substance is any long chain synthetic polyamide having recurring amide
groups (-NH-CO-) as an integral part of the polymer chain (FTC
definition). The two principal nylons are nylon 66, which is
polyhexamethylenedianime adipamide, and nylon 6, which is
polycaprolactam. Nylon 66 is so designated because each of the raw
materials, hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid, contains six carbon
atoms. In the manufacture of nylon 66 fiber, these materials are
combined, and the resultant monomer is then polymerized. After
polymerization, the material is hardened into a translucent ivory-white
solid that is cut or broken into fine chips, flakes, or pellets. This material
is melted and extruded through a spinneret while in the molten state to
form filaments that solidify quickly as they reach the cooler air. The

filaments are then drawn, or stretched, to orient the long molecules from a random arrangement to
an orderly one in the direction of the fiber axis. This drawing process gives elasticity and
strength to the filaments.
Nylon 6 was developed in Germany where the raw material, caprolactam, had been known for
some time. It was not until nylon 66 was developed in the United States that work was initiated
to convert caprolactam into a fiber. The process for nylon 6 is simpler in some respects than that
for nylon 66. Although nylon 6 has a much lower melting point than nylon 66 (a disadvantage
for a few applications), it has superior resistance to light degradation and better dyeability, elastic
recovery, fatigue resistance, and thermal stability.
Two other nylons are: (1) nylon 11, a polyamide made from 11-amino-undecanoic acid; and (2)
nylon 610, made from the condensation product of hexamethylenediamine and sebacic acid.
Nylon 610 has a lower melting point than nylon 66 and the materials for its manufacture are not
as readily available as those for nylon 66. Experimental work has been conducted on other
CHARACTERISTICS: Although the properties of the nylons described above vary in some
respects, they all exhibit excellent strength, flexibility, toughness, elasticity, abrasion resistance,
washability, ease of drying, and resistance to attack by insects and microorganisms.
END USES: Nylon is used for apparel such as stockings, lingerie, dresses, bathing suits,
foundation garments, and wash-and-wear linings; for floor coverings; for tire cord and industrial
fabrics; and in-home furnishings such as upholstery fabrics.
NYTRIL FIBER: A manufactured fiber containing at least 85% by weight of a long chain
polymer of vinylidene dinitrile [-CH2-C(CN)2-] and having the vinylidene dinitrile group in no
less than every other unit in the polymer chain (FTC definition). Nytril fibers have a low
softening point so they are most commonly used in articles that do not require pressing such as
sweaters and pile fabrics. They are also blended with wool to improve shrink resistance and
shape retention.


No comments:

Post a Comment

Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...