Saturday, August 6, 2011

Complete Textile Glossery (S to T)

Learn Apparel Merchandising, Learn Fashion design.
SAILCLOTH: Any heavy, strongly made woven canvas of cotton, linen, jute, polyester, nylon,
aramid, etc., that is used for sails. Laminated fabrics are also finding use in this market. Sailcloth
is used for apparel, particularly sportswear.
SAND: Used as a filter medium in fiber manufacture, particularly
used in spinning packs for nylon or polyester production.
SANDWICH BLEND: A method of preparing fiber mixtures by
layering them horizontally in alternating layers with all elements in
the proper proportion. Vertical sections are cut and fed to the next
machine in the process, where blending is effected.
SANFORIZED®: A trademark of Cluett, Peabody & Co., Inc., denoting a controlled standard of
shrinkage performance. Fabrics bearing this trademark will not shrink
more than 1% because they have been subjected to a method of
compressive shrinkage involving feeding the fabric between a
stretched blanket and a heated shoe. When the blanket is allowed to
retract, the cloth is physically forced to comply.
SANFOR-SET®: A trademark of Cluett, Peabody & Co., Inc.,
denoting a controlled standard of shrinkage performance originally
developed for denims. Fabrics bearing this trademark will not shrink
under home-wash, tumble-dry conditions because they have been
subjected to a liquid ammonia treatment and compressive shrinkage.
SAPONIFICATION: Specifically in relation to manufactured fibers, saponification is the
process of removing part or all of the groups from acetate or triacetate fiber, leaving regenerated
SARAN FIBER: A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is any long chain
synthetic polymer composed of at least 80% by weight of vinylidene chloride units (-CH2-CCl2-)

(FTC definition). Saran fiber has excellent resistance to sunlight and weathering and is used in
lawn furniture, upholstery, and carpets.
SASE: Acronym for stress at specified elongation; the stress experienced by a yarn or cord at a
given elongation.
SATEEN: A cotton fabric made in a satin weave.
SATIN WEAVE: One of the basic weaves, plain, satin, and twill. The
face of the fabric consists almost completely of warp or filling floats
produced in the repeat of the weave. The points of intersection are
distributed evenly and widely separated as possible. Satin-weave fabric
has a characteristic smooth, lustrous surface and has a considerably greater
number of yarns in the set of threads, either warp or filling, that forms the
face than in the other set.
SATURATION: 1. The maximum intensity or purity of a color. If the color is as brilliant as
possible, it is at saturation; if the color is subdued or grayed, it is dull, weak, and low in intensity.
2. The upper limit concentration of a solute in a solvent, i.e., no more solute can be dissolved at a
fixed temperature and pressure.
SATURATION VALUE: The maximum amount of dye that can be absorbed by a textile fiber
under defined conditions.
SAXONY: 1. A high-grade fabric for coats, made from Saxony Merino wool. 2. A soft woolen
with fancy yarn effects, used in sport-coat fabric. 3. A highly twisted worsted knitting yarn. 4. A
term describing a cut-pile carpet having highly twisted, evenly sheared, medium-length pile
SALLOPED SELVAGE: A fabric defect consisting of an abrupt, narrow place along the
selvage. Principal cause is the failure of the clip on the tenter frame to engage or hold the fabric.
SCHAPPE: A yarn from partly degummed silk waste.
SCORCHING: The tendering of a fiber surface by heat so as to change the color and texture of
the surface.
SCOURING: An operation to remove the sizing and tint used on the warp yarn in weaving and,
in general, to clean the fabric prior to dyeing.
SCREEN: 1. A hollow, cylindrical, coarse-mesh wire device used in pickers and certain openers
to form the loose staple stock into a sheet, or lap. The screen is mounted horizontally on a shaft
on which it revolves freely. 2. A stencil used in screen printing. It is made of fine cloth, usually
of silk or nylon, finely perforated in areas to form a design and mounted on a frame. The paste
containing the dye is forced through the perforations onto the fabric, leaving the design. A series
of screens, one for each color, is used for multicolored designs. (Also see PRINTING.)

SCREW FEEDS: Feed systems in which the action of the screw generates pressure that causes
flow. The system usually consists of a container with a closely fitting screw unit.
SCREW MELTER: 1. Screw extruder in which frictional forces between the screw and the
heated barrel contribute to rapid melting of solid polymer. This configuration is capable of high
throughput. 2. System in which a screw feed is used to feed polymer to a melt grid and to
maintain a constant pressure at the grid.
SCRIM: 1. A lightweight, open-weave, coarse fabric; the best qualities are made with two-ply
yarns. Cotton scrim usually comes in white, cream, or ecru and is used for window curtains and
as backing for carpets. 2. Fabric with open construction used as base fabric in the production of
coated or laminated fabrics.
SCROOP: The sound of rustle or crunch that is characteristic of silk. Scroop is a natural
property of silk, but may be induced in other fabrics to a degree by various treatments.
SCULPTURED: A term describing a carpet with areas of contrasting depth produced by mixing
cut pile and loops.
SEAMING: Joining the overlap of two pieces of fabric, usually near their edges.
SEAMLESS: A term that describes a tubular knit fabric without seams, e.g., seamless hosiery.
SEAM MARK: A particular type of pressure mark in the finished fabric. It is produced during
finishing operations by the thickness of the seam used to join pieces for processing.
SEAM SLIPPAGE: A defect consisting of separated yarns occurring when sewn fabrics pull
apart at the seams. Seam slippage is more prone to occur in smooth-yarn fabrics produced from
manufactured filament yarns.
SEAM WELDING: Any stitchless procedure for joining fabrics based on the use of
thermoplastic resins or the direct welding of thermoplastic materials. Seam welding is an
alternative to conventional needle-and-thread seaming operations that is extremely popular in the
nonwoven field.
SECANT MODULUS: The ratio of change in stress to change in strain between two points on a
stress-strain diagram, particularly the points of zero stress and breaking stress.
SECONDARY BACKING: A layer of material, usually woven jute, polypropylene, vinyl, or
latex foam, laminated to the underside of a carpet to improve body and dimensional stability.

SECONDARY COLORS: Green, orange, and violet, each of which is obtained by mixing two
primary colors.
SECONDARY CREEP: The nonrecoverable component of creep. (Also see DELAYED
noncrystalline (amorphous) portions of polymer melt or become plastic. An inflection point or
change is stress-strain properties occurs at this point; however, for most fibers, this change is
SECONDS: 1. Imperfect fabrics (woven or knitted) containing flaws in the weave, finish, or
dyeing, and sold as “seconds.” 2. See YARN QUALITY.
SECTION BEAM: 1. A large, flanged roll upon which warp yarn is wound at the beam warper
in preparation for slashing. 2. Small flanged or unflanged beams assembled side-by-side on the
shaft of a warp beam for further processing.
SECTION MARK: A fabric defect consisting of marks running warpwise in an evenly repeating
pattern, caused by the improper setting of sections in silk system (or indirect) warping.
SEERSUCKER: Lightweight fabric, made of cotton or manufactured fiber, having crinkled
stripes made by weaving some of the warp threads slack and others tight. Woven seersucker is
more expensive than imitations made by chemical treatment.
SELF-TWIST YARN: An inherently twist-stable, two-ply structure having a ply twist that is
alternately S- and Z-directed along the yarn.
SELVAGE or SELVEDGE: The narrow edge of woven fabric that runs parallel to the warp. It
is made with stronger yarns in a tighter construction than the body of the fabric to prevent
raveling. A fast selvage encloses all or part of the picks, and a selvage is not fast when the filling
threads are cut at the fabric edge after every pick.
SEQUESTRANT: Any compound that will inactivate a metallic ion by forming a water-soluble
complex in which the metal is held in a nonionizable form. This results in prevention of the usual
precipitation reactions of the metal.
SERGE: Any smooth-faced cloth made with a two-up and two-down twill weave.
SERGING: 1. Overcasting the cut edge of a fabric to prevent raveling. 2. Finishing the edge of a
carpet by oversewing rather than binding. Generally, the sides of a carpet are serged and the ends
SERICIN: Silk gum. The gelatinous protein that cements the fibroin filaments in a silk fiber. It
is removed in the process called degumming.

SERVED YARN: In aerospace textiles, a reinforcing yarn such as
graphite or glass around which two different yarns are wound, i.e., one
in the Z direction and one in the S direction, etc., for protection or
compaction of the yarn bundle.
SET MARK: A fabric defect consisting of narrow bars or bands across
the full width of the fabric that may appear either as a tight, loose, or
corduroy effect caused by loom stops improperly reset by the weaver.
Set marks are sometimes caused by the weaver ripping out filling yarn
and then not properly adjusting the pick wheel to obtain the proper
relation between the fell of the cloth and the reed.
SET POINT: An input in process control that defines the desired value or range of values of the
variable that is being controlled.
SET YARNS: False-twist yarns stabilized to produce bulk.
SEYDEL CONVERTER: Tow-to-top processing equipment. Seydel combines the
prestretching and breaking process in one machine.
S-FINISHING: A finishing process applied to acetate and triacetate fabrics using a sodium
hydroxide solution to give surface saponification; i.e., the fiber “skin” is converted to cellulose.
It improves the hand and reduces the tendency to acquire a static charge.
SHADECLOTH: A plain-weave cotton or linen fabric that is heavily sized and is often given oil
treatment to make it opaque. The fabric is used for curtains and shades.
SHADED FILLING: A defect consisting of a bar running across the fabric caused by a
difference in appearance of the filling yarn, and occurring at a quill change or knot.
SHADING: In cut-pile fabrics, an apparent change in color when the pile is bent, caused by
differences in the way light is reflected off the bent fibers. This phenomenon is a characteristic of
pile fabrics, not a defect.
SHAFT: 1. A term often used with reference to satins indicating the number of harnesses
employed to produce the weave. 2. See HARNESS.
SHAFT MARK: A fabric defect characterized by a number of floating ends, usually caused by a
broken harness strap on the loom.
SHAG CARPET: A loosely tufted carpet construction with cut pile 1 to 5 inches in length and
with greater than normal spacing between tufts.
SHANTUNG: Plain-weave fabric with unevenly ribbed surface and crisp texture.

SHARKSKIN: 1. A hard-finished, twill fabric, woolen or worsted, made of simple weaves with
a two-color arrangement of warp and filling yarns. 2. A plain-weave sportswear fabric made of
dull-luster acetate or triacetate yarns.
SHEARING: ```A dry finishing operation in which
projecting fibers are mechanically cut or trimmed from the
face of the fabric. Woolen and worsted fabrics are almost
always sheared. Shearing is also widely employed on other
fabrics, especially on napped and pile fabrics where the
amount varies according to the desired height of the nap or
pile. For flat-finished fabrics such as gabardine, a very close
shearing is given.
SHEATH-CORE FIBERS: Bicomponent fibers of either two polymer types,
or two variants of the same polymer. One polymer forms a core and the other
surrounds it as a sheath.
SHED: A path through and perpendicular to the warp in the loom. It is formed
by raising some warp threads by means of their harnesses while others are left
down. The shuttle passes through the shed to insert the filling.
SHEDDING: 1. The operation of forming a shed in weaving. 2. A loss of nominal length staple
at any process in a staple yarn plant.
SHEERS: Transparent, lightweight fabrics of different constructions and yarns, especially those
of silk and manufactured fibers. Examples are chiffons, some crepes, georgette, and voile.
SHIER: A short length of a single pick that appears to be cut out of the plane of the fabric.
SHINER: A relatively short streak caused by a lustrous section of a filament yarn. The principal
cause is excessive tension applied to a yarn during processing.
SHOE FOLD: A manner of folding fabric. The piece is folded from both ends into twelve or
sixteen folds. The length of the fold depends upon the length of the piece.
SHORT-CUT STAPLE: Staple fiber less than 0.75-ingh long. Typically used in wet-laid
nonwoven processes to make fabrics, or as reinforcement in plastics, concrete, asphalt, and other
SHOT: In woven pile floor coverings, the number of filling yarns per row of tufts.
SHREDDING: The separation of compressed fibers in pulp sheets prior to acetylation in acetate

SHRINKAGE: Widthwise or lengthwise contraction of a fiber, yarn, or fabric, usually after
wetting a redrying or on exposure to elevated temperature.
SHRINKAGE FORCE: The force generated by thermoplastic materials when they are subjected
to elevated temperatures.
SHUTTLE: A boat-shaped device, usually made of wood with a
metal tip that carries filling yarns through the shed in the weaving
process. It is the most common weft-insertion device. The shuttle
holds a quill, or pirn, on which the filling yarn is wound. It is
equipped with an eyelet at one end to control rate. The filling yarn is
furnished during the weaving operation.
SHUTTLE CHAFE MARK: A fabric defect that is usually seen as
groups of short, fine lines across the fabric, often running for some
distance in the piece and usually in the same area. Although these
marks run in the direction of the filling, they are actually caused by
the shuttle rubbing across and damaging the warp ends, producing a
dull, chalky appearance.
SHUTTLELESS LOOM: A loom in which some device other then a shuttle is used for weft
insertion. (Also see LOOM and WEFT INSERTION.)
SILICONE: One of a group of polymeric organic silicon compounds obtained as oils, greases, or
plastics and applied to textile material as water- and heat-resistant lubricants and finishes.
SILK FIBER: A fine, strong, continuous filament produced by the larva of certain insects,
especially the silkworm, when constructing its cocoons. The silkworm secretes the silk as a
viscous fluid from two large glands in the lateral part of the body. The fluid is extruded through a
common spinneret to form a double filament cemented together. This double silk filament, which
is composed of the protein fibroin, ranges in size from 1.75 to 4.0 denier, depending upon the
species of worm and the country of origin. The filament of the cocoon is softened and loosened
by immersion in warm water and is then reeled off. Although raw silk contains 20 to 30% of
sericin, or silk glue, and is harsh and stiff, silk is soft and white when all of the glue has been
removed by steeping and boiling in soap baths. Ecru is harsher, as it has only about 5% of the
sericin removed. Silk is noted for its strength, resiliency, and elasticity. The major sources of
commercial silk are Japan and China.
SIMULATED SPUN YARNS: Filament yarns that have been modified to have aesthetics
similar to those of spun yarns. Simulated spun yarn have looped or hairy surfaces.
SINGEING: The process of burning off protruding fibers from yarn or fabric by passing it over a
flame or heated copper plates. Singeing gives the fabric a smooth surface and is necessary for
fabrics that are to be printed and for fabrics where smooth finishes are desired.
SINGLE-KNIT FABRIC: Also called plain knit, a fabric constructed with one needle bed and
one set of needles.
SINGLES YARN: The simplest strand of textile material suitable for operations such as weaving
and knitting. A singles yarn may be formed from fibers with more or less twist; from filaments

with or without twist; from narrow strips of material such as paper, cellophane, or metal foil; or
from monofilaments. When twist is present, it is all in the same direction. (Also see YARN.)
SINGLING: A yarn defect caused by the breaking of one or more strands in a plying operation
with resulting unevenness in the finished product.
SINKER: In weave design, a blank square indicating a filling thread over a warp thread at the
point of intersection.
SINTERING: Forming a bonded mass or fiber by heating the constituents of the mass or fiber
without melting.
SISAL: A strong, white, bast fiber produced from leaves of the Agave plant, which is found in
Central America, West Indies, and Africa. Sisal is used chiefly for cordage and twine.
SIZE MARK: A fabric defect that consists of a rough or frosted spin caused by uneven
application or drying of the size.
SIZING: 1. A generic term for compounds that are applied to warp yarn to bind the fiber together
and stiffen the yarn to provide abrasion resistance during weaving. Starch, gelatin, oil, wax, and
manufactured polymers such as polyvinyl alcohol, polystyrene, polyacrylic acid, and polyacetates
are employed. 2. The process of applying sizing compounds. (Also see SLASHING.) 3. The
process of weighing sample lengths of yarn to determine the count.
SKEIN: A continuous strand of yarn or cord in the form of a collapsed coil. It may be of any
specific length and is usually obtained by winding a definite number of turns on a reel under
prescribed conditions. The circumference of the reel on which yarn is wound is usually 45 to 60
inches. (Also see HANK.)
SKEIN BREAK FACTOR: The comparative breaking load of a skein of yarn adjusted for the
linear density of the yarn expressed in an indirect system. It is the product of the breaking load of
the skein and the yarn number expressed in an indirect system (e.g., pounds times cotton count).
A statement of the skein break factor must indicate the number or wraps in the skein, if this is not
otherwise apparent. Without specifying the number of wraps, a statement of the skein break
factor is meaningless.
SKEIN BREAKING TENACITY: The skein breaking load divided by the product of the yarn
number in a direct numbering system and the number of strands placed under the tension (twice
the number of wraps in the skein); preferably expressed in newtons per tex.
SKEWNESS: The distance measured parallel to and along a selvage between
the point at which a filling yarn meets this selvage and a perpendicular to the
selvage from the point at which the same filling yarn meets the other selvage.
Skewness may be expressed directly in inches or as a percentage of the width of
the fabric at the point of measurement.
SLACK END: An end woven under insufficient tension.

SLACK MERCERIZATION: A process for producing stretch in cellulosic fabrics.
SLACK PICK: A single filling yarn woven under insufficient tension.
SLACK SELVAGE: A self-descriptive fabric defect caused by incorrect balance of cloth
structure between the ground and selvage or by the selvage ends being woven with insufficient
SLASHER: A machine used to apply size to the warp ends, while transferring the warp yarns
from section beams to the loom beam.
SLASHING: A process of sizing warp yarns on a slasher. (Also see SIZING, 1, and
SLEAZY: Thin, lacking firmness, open-meshed; usually describes poor-grade fabrics.
SLEEVING: A braided, knit, or woven product or fabric in tubular or cylindrical form that is
less than 4 inches in width (i.e., 8 inches in circumference).
SLEY: The number of warp yarns per inch in a woven cloth on or off the loom.
SLIDE WASTE: A yarn defect that is similar in appearance to a slub. It consists of a mass of
fiber encircling the yarn end and can be slid freely along the end.
SLIPPAGE: Sliding or slipping of the filling threads over the warp ends (or vice versa), which
leaves open spaces in the fabric. Slippage results from a loose weave or unevenly matched warp
and filling.
SLIT-FILM YARN: Yarn of a flat, tape-like character produced by slitting an extruded film.
SLIT TAPE: A fabric, 12 inches or less in width, made by cutting wider fabric to the desired
width. Slit tapes are made primarily of cotton, linen, jute, glass, or asbestos and are used
principally for functional purposes.

SLIVER: A continuous strand of loosely assembled fibers without twist. Sliver is delivered by
the card, the comber, or the drawing frame. The production of sliver is the first step in the textile
operation that brings staple fiber into a form that can be drawn (or reduced in bulk) and
eventually twisted into a spun yarn.
SLIVER KNITTING: Circular knitting coupled with the drawing-in of a sliver by the needles to
produce a pile-like fabric, usually for high-pile coats or heavy linings.
SLUB: A yarn defect consisting of a lump or thick place on the yarn caused by lint or small
lengths of yarn adhering to it. Generally, in filament yarn, a slub is the result of broken filaments
that have stripped back from the end to which they are attached.
SLUBBER: A machine used in textile processes prior to spinning that reduces the sliver and
inserts the first twist.
SLUBBING: The product of the slubber, it is the intermediate stage between sliver and roving.
SLUB CATCHER: A mechanical or electronic device designed to aid in the detection and
removal of slubs or neps in yarns, usually during coning.
SLUB YARN: Any type of yarn that is irregular in diameter; the irregularity may be purposeful
or the result of error. (Also see NOVELTY YARN, NUB YARN, and SLUB.)
SLUG: A thick place in a yarn or a piece of lint entangled in yarn, cord, or fabric.
SLURRY: A watery or solvent suspension; e.g., titanium dioxide mixed with water for addition
to polymers.
SMASH: 1. A relatively large hole in fabric characterized by many broken warp ends and
floating picks. One cause is the breaking of one or both harness straps, permitting the harness to
drop and break out warp ends. 2. The breaking of many yarn ends in a beaming operation,
usually as a result of mechanical failures.
SMOULDERING: A slow, flameless, smoking burning of a fabric.
SNAG: A pulled thread in knits. It is in the wale direction in warp knits and in the course
direction in weft knits.
SNARL: A short length of warp or filling yarn that has twisted on itself because of lively twist or
insufficient tension. The snarling may occur during or prior to the weaving process.

SOAKING: Treatment of rayon yarns in a lubricating and sizing solution preparatory to hard
SOAP: The detergent obtained by the formation of a sodium or potassium salt of a fatty acid or
mixture of fatty acids.
SOFTENER: 1. A product designed to impart a soft mellowness to the fabric. Examples are
glucose, glycerine, tallow, or any one of a number of quaternary ammonium compounds. 2. A
substance that reduces the hardness of water by removing or sequestering the calcium and
magnesium ions. 3. A substance used to reduce friction during mixing and processing when dry
powders are added to polymers.
SOFTENING POINT: The temperature at which substances without a sharp melting point
change from viscous to plastic flow.
SOIL BURIAL TEST: A test of resistance of textile material to certain microorganisms present
in soil. The samples are buried in soil for an extended period, then removed and measured for
strength loss.
SOILING: The staining or smudging of textile materials resulting from the deposit of dirt, oil
undesirable dye, etc.
SOLID-STATE POLYMERIZATION: Reaction of the active end-groups within a solid
polymer. It may be intentional as in heating and drying nylon 66 to increase the final degree of
polymerization; or it may be undesirable such as that which occurs in fibers under hightemperature
conditions in tires that leads to increased degree of polymerization, cross-linking, and
subsequent brittleness and loss of strength.
SOLUBLE: Capable of being dissolved, i.e., passing into solution.
SOURING: Any treatment of textile materials in dilute acid. Its purpose is the neutralization of
any alkali that is present.
SPANDEX FIBER: A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is a long chain
synthetic polymer composed of at least 85% of a segmented polyurethane (FTC definition).
CHARACTERISTICS: Spandex is lighter in weight, more durable, and more supple than
conventional elastic threads and has between two and three times their restraining power.
Spandex is extruded in a multiplicity of fine filaments which immediately form a monofilament.
It can be repeatedly stretched over 500% without breaking and still recover instantly to its
original length. It does not suffer deterioration from oxidation as is the case with fine sizes of
rubber thread, and it is not damaged by body oils, perspiration, lotions, or detergents.

END USES: Spandex is used in foundation garments, bathing suits, hose, and webbings.
SPECIFIC GRAVITY: Ratio of the mass of a material to the mass of an equal volume of water
at 4°C. The range for modern fibers is not too great and is dependent to some extent on the liquid
used as an immersant in measurements, because of fiber swelling and of possible absorption of
liquid into fiber voids. (Also see DENSITY.)
SPECK: 1. A contaminant in polymer such as gels, metal, or dirt that shows up as a dark spot. 2.
A small particle of foreign substance that has not been removed from the stock before spinning.
SPECKING: The removal of burrs, knots, and other objects that impair the finished appearance
of woolens and worsteds.
SPECKY: A term used to describe dyed woolen fabric with specks of undyed vegetable matter
on the face. The specks can be removed by carbonizing or covered by speck dyeing.
SPECTROGRAPH: A spectroscope equipped with a camera or some other device for recording
the spectrum. (Also see SPECTROSCOPE.)
SPECTROMETER: An instrument for identifying and comparing materials by the dispersing of
light and the study of the spectra formed.
SPECTROPHOTOMETER: An instrument used to measure the transmission or reflectance of
light as a function of wavelength.
SPECTROSCOPE: An instrument for forming a spectrum for visual examination.
SPECTROSCOPY: The identification of materials by the analysis of their spectra.
SPHERULITE: A common form of polymer crystallization from melts
or concentrated solutions. These crystallites show a radial symmetry
from a central point and have a distinctive maltese cross pattern of
birefringence under the polarizing microscope.
SPINDLE: A slender, upright, rotating rod on a spinning frame, roving
frame, twister, winder, or similar machine. A bobbin is placed on the
spindle to receive the yarn as the spindle is rotated at high speed.
SPIN-DRAWING: 1. The reduction of roving during spinning by a roller
drafting mechanism similar to that used on the roving frame. 2. Combined
spinning and drawing in one operation in melt-spun fibers.
SPINNERET: A metal disc containing numerous minute holes used in
manufactured fiber extrusion. The spinning solution or melted polymer is
forced through the holes to form the fiber filaments.

SPINNING: The process or processes used in the production of single yarns or of fabrics
generated directly from polymer.
1. Yarn from Staple Fiber: The formation of a yarn by a combination of drawing or drafting
and twisting prepared strands of fibers, such as rovings.
2. Filament Yarn: In the spinning of manufactured filaments, fiber-forming substances in the
plastic or molten state, or in solution, are forced through the fine orifices in a metallic plate called
a spinneret, or jet, at a controlled rate. The solidified filaments are drawn-off by rotating rolls, or
godets, and wound onto bobbins or pirns. There are several methods of spinning manufactured
Dry Spinning: The process in which a solution of the fiber-forming substance is
extruded in a continuous stream into a heated chamber to remove the solvent, leaving the solid
filament, as in the manufacture of acetate.
Gel Spinning: A spinning process in which the primary mechanism of solidification is
the gelling of the polymer solution by cooling to form a gel filament consisting of precipitated
polymer and solvent. Solvent removal is accomplished following solidification by washing in a
liquid bath. The resultant fibers can be drawn to give a product with high tensile strength and
Melt Spinning: The process in which the fiber-forming substance is melted and extruded
into air or other gas, or into a suitable liquid, where it is cooled and solidified, as in the
manufacture of polyester or nylon.
Phase-Separation Spinning: Extrusion of polymer and solvent at high temperature into
a cooling zone. During the cooling process, a phase separation occurs, usually accompanied by
crystallization of the solvent. Solvent can be removed before or after drawing.
Reaction Spinning:
Process in which an initial
prepolymer is formed and then
extruded into a reagent bath
where polymerization and
filament formation occur
simultaneously. Spandex fibers
can be made by this process.
Wet Spinning: The
process in which a solution of the
fiber-forming substance is
extruded into a liquid coagulating
medium where the polymer is
regenerated, as in the manufacture
of viscose or cuprammonium

3. Yarn from Leaf and Bast Fiber: In the manufacture of leaf and bast fiber yarns, the terms
“wet spinning” and “dry spinning” refer to the spinning of fibers in the wet state and in the air-dry
state, respectively.
4. Yarn from Filament Tow: The formation of a yarn from filament tow by a combination of
cutting or breaking, drafting, and twisting in a single series of operations. Also known as
5. Nonwoven Fabric: Fabrics can be produced directly from molten or dissolved fiber-forming
substances by several continuous processes:
Flash Extrusion: The process in which a fiber-forming substance in a volatile solvent is
extruded from a high-temperature, high-pressure environment into lower temperature and
pressure conditions, causing the solvent to rapidly evaporate, leaving a lacy, net-like fabric.
SPINNING FRAME: A machine used for spinning staple yarn. It drafts the roving to the
desired size, inserts twist, and winds the yarn onto a bobbin. The term is generally used to
indicate a ring spinning frame, although it does cover flyer spinning and cap spinning on the
worsted system.
SPINNING SOLUTION: A solution of a fiber-forming polymer (e.g., cellulose acetate) in a
suitable condition to be extruded by either dry spinning or wet spinning.
SPINNING TWIST: The twist added to yarn during spinning to give it strength and other
desired characteristics.
SPIRAL YARNS: Specialty yarn made by winding heavier, slackly
twisted yarn around a finer yarn with a hard twist to give a slubby
SPLICING: 1. The joining of two ends of yarn or cordage. There are several methods used, e.g.,
by interweaving the strands, by the use of knots, by tapering, lapping, and cementing the ends,
etc. 2. A method of reinforcing knits, e.g., the heels and toes of hosiery, by introducing an
additional yarn for strength.
SPLINTER: Two or more staple fibers adhering together, causing a stiff cluster that resists
pulling apart in normal processing, and reacting in the yarn spinning process similarly to higher
than nominal denier fiber.
SPLINTER COUNT: A measure of the number of coalesced fibers, mealy particles, or other
such matter in staple fiber.
SPLIT-DRAFT METIER: An extrusion cabinet for dry spinning in which the drying medium
(hot air) is introduced between the jet and the yarn outlet and flows in both directions.

SPLIT END: 1. A defect in fabric caused by breakage of some of the singles yarns in a plied
warp yarn. 2. A defect in manufactured filament yarn caused by breakage of some of the
SPLITTING: 1. In the processing of tow, a defect in which the integrity of opened tow is
disturbed by separation or division into two or more segments longitudinally. Splitting can be
continuous or intermittent, long or short term. 2. In slashing, the separation of sized yarn ends
before takeup on the slasher beam.
SPOOL: A flanged wooden or metal cylinder upon which yarn, thread, or wire is wound. The
spool has an axial hole for a pin or spindle used in winding. (Also see BEAM.)
SPOT BONDING: See BONDING, 2, Point Bonding.
SPRING NEEDLE: A knitting machine needle with a long, flexible hook, or beard,
that allows the hook to be closed by an action known as pressing so that the loops
can be cast off. The hook springs back to its original position when the presser bar is
removed. (Also see LATCH NEEDLE.)
SPUN-BONDED PRODUCTS: Nonwoven fabrics formed by filaments that have been
extruded, drawn, then laid on a continuous belt. Bonding is
accomplished by several methods such as by hot roll calendering or
by passing the web through a saturated-steam chamber at an elevated
SPUN-DYED: See DYEING, Mass-Colored.
SPUN FABRIC: A fabric made from staple fibers that may contain
one or a blend of two or more fiber types.
SPUNLACED FABRIC: A nonwoven fabric produced by entangling
fibers in a repeating pattern to form a strong fabric free of binders.
SPUN YARN: 1. A yarn consisting of staple fibers usually bound together by twist. 2. A meltspun
fiber before it is drawn.

SQUEEGEE: The portion of a screen-printing apparatus consisting of a blade that forces the
print paste through the screen onto the fabric.
SQUEEZE ROLLS: Rolls used to apply pressure for removal of water or chemicals from fabric.
STABILITY: A term used to describe the tendency of a fiber or fabric to return to its original
shape after being subjected to external influence, such as tension, heat, or chemicals.
STABILIZED FIBER: Fiber that is heat or chemically treated to set the fiber properties and
prevent deterioration, shrinkage, etc. (Also see HEAT STABILIZED, HEAT SETTING and UV
STAINING: The undesired pickup of color by a fabric: (1) when immersed in water, drycleaning
solvent, or similar liquid medium that contains dyestuffs or coloring material not
intended for coloring the fabric; or (2) by direct contact with other dyed material from which
color is transferred by bleeding or sublimation.
STAINLESS-STEEL FIBER: Textile fibers made of stainless steel. Steel fibers are used for
antistatic purposes in carpets, for tire belt construction, and for high-temperature or heat-resistant
end uses.
STANDARD ATMOSPHERE: Air maintained at 70°F (21°C) and 65% relative humidity.
When international testing is involved, a standard temperature of 20°C or, by agreement, 27°C
may be used. Special humidity and temperature conditions are sometimes prescribed for the
testing of certain textiles for specific service predictions, resistance to water or biological action,
STANDARD CONDITION: Standard condition is that reached by a specimen when it is in
moisture equilibrium with a standard atmosphere. Standard condition is seldom realized in
practice since laboratory atmospheres are continually fluctuating between narrow limits, and it is
not practical to wait for the attainment of moisture equilibrium which would require several days
or more for tightly wound samples of high regain material. Practically, specimens are brought to
moisture equilibrium in the standard atmosphere for testing as defined in these definitions. The
term “standard condition” should not be used as a synonym for the concept of “standard
STANDARD DEVIATION: A measure of the dispersion of a set of numbers based on the
difference of the individual numbers from the mean.
STANDARD MOISTURE REGAIN: Accepted moisture allowance for textile materials
expressed in percentages of their dry weight.
STANDING WIRE: A broad term describing fixed rods or strips extending through the loom
reed, that control the height of the pile in a woven pile fabric.
STAPLE: Natural fibers or cut lengths from filaments. The staple length of natural fibers varies
from less than 1 inch as with some cotton fibers to several feet for some hard fibers.
Manufactured staple fibers are cut to a definite length, from 8 inches down to about 1-1/2 inches
(occasionally down to 1 inch), so that they can be processed on cotton, woolen, or worsted yarn

spinning systems. The term staple (fiber) is used in the textile industry to distinguish natural or
cut length manufactured fibers from filament.
STAPLE PROCESSING: The conversion of staple into spun yarns suitable in evenness, size,
twist, and strength for use in the weaving or knitting of fabrics. (Also see TEXTILE
STATIC: An accumulation of negative or positive electricity on the surface of fibers or fabrics
because of inadequate electrical dissipation during processing. Static results in an electrical
attraction or repulsion of the fibers relative to themselves, to machine parts, or to other materials,
preventing the fiber from traveling in a normal path in the process.
STATIC ADHESION: In tire cord, the measurement of the strength of a cord-to-rubber bond
under static conditions or very low strain rate.
STEAM CHEST: A steam-heated cabinet used in manufactured fiber production. Usually refers
to the heated cabinet in which spin-drawing is done or to the cabinet around a stuffer-box
STICKER: 1. A distortion in the weave characterized by tight and slack places in the same warp
yarns. The principal causes are rolled ends on the beam, warp ends restricted by broken filament
slubs, and knots catching at lease rods, drop wires, heddles, or reeds. (Also see DRAW-BACK.)
STIFFNESS: The property of a fiber or fabric to resist bending or to carry a load without
deformation. It is based on the fiber modulus.
STITCHING: The process of passing a fiber or thread through the thickness of fabric layers to
secure them. In composite manufacture, stitching is used to make preforms or to improve
damage tolerance of complex-shaped parts.
STOCKINETTE: A knit fabric in tubular or flat form made with a plain stitch from yarns of
wool, cotton, manufactured fibers, or a combination of these fibers. Stockinette fabrics are used

for underwear, industrial applications, and other purposes. In heavier constructions, dyed and
napped stockinette finds apparel uses. (Also spelled stockinet.)
for measuring wear resistance of fabrics, yarns, thread, etc. It can be equipped with either of two
testing heads, one for testing abrasion resistance of flat surfaces and the other for testing
resistance to flexing and abrasion. (See diagram.)
STOP MOTION: Any device that automatically stops a textile machine’s operation on the
occurrence of a yarn break, a high defect count, etc.
STRAND: 1. A single fiber, filament, or monofilament. 2. An ordered assemblage of textile
fibers having a high ratio of length to diameter and normally used as a unit; includes slivers,
roving, single yarns, plies yarns, cords, braids, ropes, etc.
STRAW: A general term for plant fibers obtained from stems, stalks, leaves, bark, grass, etc.
They are made into hats, bags, shoes, mats, etc., by weaving, plaiting, or braiding.
STREAK: A discoloration (rust, oil, dye, grease, soap, etc.) extended as an irregular stripe in the
STRESS: The resistance to deformation developed within a specimen subjected to an external
force. Typical examples are tensile stress, shear stress, or compressive stress. Stress usually
reaches a maximum at the time of rupture. When a textile material is subjected to a stress below
that causing rupture, the stress gradually decreases or decays with time.
STRESS-STRAIN CURVE: A graphical representation, showing the relationship between the
change in dimension (in the direction of the applied stress) of the specimen from the application
of an external stress, and the magnitude of that stress. In tension tests of textile materials, the
stress can be expressed either in units of force per unit cross-sectional area, or in force per unit
linear density of the original specimen, and the strain can be expressed either as a fraction or as a
percentage of the original specimen length. (Also see LOAD-DEFORMATION CURVE.)
STRETCH BREAKING: In conversion of tow-to-top, fibers are hot stretched and broken rather
than cut to prevent some of the damage done by cutting.

STRETCH SPINNING: A term used in the manufacture of rayon. Rayon filaments are
stretched while moist and before final coagulation to decrease their diameter and increase their
STRIATIONS: Streaks or bands or various nature in fibers or fabrics.
STRIÉ: A term describing any cloth having irregular stripes or streaks of practically the same
color as the background.
STRIPPING: 1. A chemical process for removing color from dyed cloth by the use of various
chemicals. Stripping is done when the color is unsatisfactory and the fabric is to be redyed. 2.
The physical process of removing fiber that in embedded in the clothing of a card. 3. See
STUFFER BOX: A mechanism for crimping in which a fiber bundle (e.g., tow or filament yarn)
is jammed against itself, causing it to crimp. By the suitable application of heat (usually wet
steam) and pressure to the stuffed tow, a high and permanent crimp can be forced into the bundle.
(Also see TEXTURING, Stuffer Box Method.)
STUFFERS: Extra yarns running in the warp direction through a woven fabric to increase the
fabric’s strength and weight.
STYRENE: An unsaturated hydrocarbon, (C6H5-CH = CH2), prepared from coal tar. Polystyrene
is a colorless, transparent plastic used for molding various articles for insulation, transparent
parts, radio parts, etc.
SUBLIMATION: A phase change in which a substance, such as a dye, passes directly from the
solid to the vapor phase without passing through a liquid phase. This process is the basis for
transfer printing.
SUBLISTATIC® PROCESS: A method of applying print designs to fabrics containing
manufactured fibers by paper-transfer techniques. Developed by Sublistatic Corp. (Also see
PRINTING, Heat Transfer Printing.)
SUBSTRATE: Fabric to which coatings or other fabrics are applied. It can be of woven, knit,
nonwoven, or weft-insertion construction. Generally, substrate properties are dependent both on
fiber type and fabric construction. Usually the fabric is scoured, heat-set, and otherwise finished
prior to coating or bonding. Many smooth-surfaced manufactured fiber fabrics require
impregnation with a latex prior to coating to ensure adequate adhesion.

SUEDE FABRIC: Woven or knitted cloth finished to resemble suede leather, usually by
napping, shearing, and sanding techniques.
SULFAR FIBER: A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is a long chain,
synthetic polysulfide in which at least 85% of the sulfide (-S-) linkages are attached to two
aromatic rings (FTC definition). The raw material is polyphenylene sulfide which is melt spun
and processed into staple fibers. These are high performance fibers with excellent resistance to
strong chemicals and high temperature. They show excellent strength retention in harsh
environments; are flame retardant; and are non-conducting. They find use in high-temperature
filter fabrics, electrical insulation, coal-fired boiler bag houses, papermaker’s felt, and highperformance
SULFONATED: A term describing a material that has been reacted with sulfonic acid, usually
to impart solubility, dyeability with cationic dyes, or other properties.
SULFONIC ACID: Any acid containing the sulfonic group, (SO3H).
SUPERABSORBENT: A material that can absorb many times the amount of liquid ordinarily
absorbed by cellulosic materials such as wood pulp, cotton, and rayon.
SURAH: A soft fabric of silk or filament polyester or acetate, usually a twill and often woven in
a plaid. Surah is used for ties, mufflers, blouses, and dresses.
SURFACE CHARGE: The electrical charge on the surface of a substance.
SURFACE ENERGY: 1. The free energy of the surfaces at an interface that arises because of
differences in the tendencies of each phase to attract its own molecules. 2. The work that would
be required to increase the surface area of a liquid by one unit area.
SURFACE TENSION: Intermolecular forces acting on the molecules at the free surface of a
liquid tend to minimize the surface area of the liquid and give the surface properties similar to
those of an elastic skin under tension. When two dissimilar liquids make contact, these
intermolecular forces will cause the shape of the interface to change until the potential energy of
the entire molecular system is at a minimum.
SURFACTANT: A surface-active agent, i.e., a product that acts by modifying the surface or
boundary between two phases.
SWATCH: A piece of fabric used as a representative sample of any fabric.
SWELLING: In textile usage, expanding of a fiber caused by the influence of a solvent or
chemical agent. A property often used to facilitate dyeing.
SYNDIOTACTIC POLYMER: A polymer structure in
which the atoms that are not part of the backbone chain are
distributed in a symmetrical and recurring manner above and

below the backbone chain when the latter is in a single plane. (Also see ATACTIC POLYMER,
SYNTHETIC FIBER: Another term for manufactured fiber.

TACKINESS: The property of being sticky or adhesive.
TACTIC POLYMER: A polymer whose molecular structure exhibits regularity or symmetry of
non-backbone side groups rather than random ordering. (Also see ATACTIC POLYMER,
TAFFETA: A plain-weave fabric with a fine, smooth, crisp hand and usually a lustrous
appearance. Taffeta fabric usually has a fine cross rib made by using a heavier filling yarn than
warp yarn. Taffetas are produced in solid colors, yarn-dyed plaids and stripes, and prints.
Changeable and moiré effects are often employed. Although originally made of silk,
manufactured fibers are now often used in the production of taffeta.
TAKE-UP (TWIST): The change in length of a filament, yarn, or cord caused by twisting,
expressed as a percentage of the original (untwisted) length.
TAKE-UP (YARN-IN-FABRIC): The difference in distance between two points in a yarn as it
lies in a fabric and the same two points after the yarn has been removed from the fabric and
straightened under specified tension, expressed as a percentage of the straightened length. In this
sense, take-up is contrasted to the crimp of a yarn in a fabric, which is expressed as a percentage
of the distance between the two points in the yarn as it lies in the fabric. Take-up is generally
used in connection with greige fabric.
TANGENT MODULUS: The ratio of change in stress to change in strain derived from the
tangent to any point on a stress-stain curve.
TAPE: 1. A narrow, woven fabric not over 8 inches in width. 2. In slide fasteners, a strip of
material, along one edge of which the bead and scoops are attached, the bead sometimes being
integral with the strip. (Also see SLIT TAPE and NONELASTIC WOVEN TAPE.)
TARE: The weight of all external and internal packing material (including bobbins, tubes, etc.)
of a case, bale, or other type of container.
TARPAULIN: Water-resistant fabric used to protect loads or materials from the elements. May
be a coated fabric, a fabric with waterproof finish, or a fabric that is tightly constructed to prevent
water penetration.

TEAR STRENGTH: The force required to begin or to continue a tear in a fabric under specified
TEMPERATURE OF ZERO BIREFRINGENCE: The temperature at which the refractive
indexes of a material are equal in two perpendicular directions (longitudinally and transversely
for a fiber).
TENACITY: The tensile stress when expressed as force per unit linear density of the unstrained
specimen (e.g., grams-force per denier or newtons per tex). (Also see BREAKING TENACITY.)
TENCEL®: Registered trademark of Tencel, Inc. for their brand of cellulosic staple fiber
classified as lyocell. See LYOCELL FIBER.
TENSILE FACTOR: The empirical factor T x E1/2 that describes the tenacity elongation
exchange relationship for a large number of manufactured fiber systems.
TENSILE HYSTERESIS CURVE: A complex load-elongation, or stress-strain curve obtained:
(1) when a specimen is successively subjected to the application of a load or stress less than that
causing rupture and to the removal of the load or stress according to a predetermined procedure;
or (2) when a specimen is stretched less than the breaking elongation and allowed to relax by
removal of the strain according to a predetermined procedure.
TENSILE STRAIN: The relative length deformation exhibited by a specimen subjected to a
tensile force. Strain may be expressed as a fraction of the nominal gauge length or as a
percentage. (Also see ELONGATION.)
TENSILE STRENGTH: 1. In general, the strength shown by a specimen subjected to tension as
distinct from torsion, compression, or shear. 2. Specifically, the maximum tensile stress
expressed in force per unit cross-sectional area of the unstrained specimen, e.g., kilograms per
square millimeter, pounds per square inch. (For maximum stress per unit linear density, see
TENSILE STRESS: The resistance to deformation developed within a specimen subjected to
tension by external force. The tensile stress is commonly expressed in two ways, either as (1) the
tensile strength, i.e., the force per unit cross-sectional area of the unstrained specimen, or as (2)
tenacity, i.e., the force per unit linear density of the unstrained specimen. The latter is more
frequently used in textile testing.
TENSILE TEST: A method of measuring the resistance of a yarn or fabric to a force tending to
stretch the specimen in one direction.
TENTER FRAME: A machine that dries fabric to a specified width under tension. The machine
consists essentially of a pair of endless chains on horizontal tracks. The fabric is held firmly at
the edges by pins or clips on the two chains that diverge as they advance through the heated
chamber, adjusting the fabric to the desired width.

TEREPHTHALIC ACID: Para-phthalic acid, [C6H4(COOH)2]. Used to produce polyester
resins, fibers, and films by combination with glycols.
TERPOLYMER: A product of the polymerization of three different monomers.
TERRY CLOTH: A cotton or cotton-blend fabric having uncut loops on one or both sides.
Made on a dobby loom with a terry arrangement or on a Jacquard loom. It is used for toweling,
beach robes, etc.
TERTIARY COLORS: Shades that are obtained by mixing the three primary colors or by
mixing one or more of the secondary colors with gray or black.
TETRACHLORIDE: A chloride, such as carbon tetrachloride, containing four atoms of
TEX: 1. A unit for expressing linear density, equal to the weight in grams of 1 kilometer of yarn,
filament, fiber, or other textile strand. 2. The system of yarn numbering based on the use of tex
units. (Also see YARN NUMBER.)
TEXTILE: Originally, a woven fabric; now applied generally to any one of the following: 1.
Staple fibers and filaments suitable for conversion to or use as yarns, or for the preparation of
woven, knit, or nonwoven fabrics. 2. Yarns made from natural or manufactured fibers. 3. Fabrics
and other manufactured products made from fibers as defined above and from yarns. 4. Garments
and other articles fabricated from fibers, yarns, or fabrics when the products retain the
characteristic flexibility and drape of the original fabrics.
TEXTILE MATERIALS: A general term for fibers, yarn intermediates, yarn, fabrics, and
products made from fabrics that retain more or less completely the strength, flexibility, and other
typical properties of the original fiber or filaments.
TEXTILE PROCESSING: Any mechanical operation used to translate a textile fiber or yarn to
a fabric or other textile material. This includes such operations as opening, carding, spinning,
plying, twisting, texturing, coning, quilling, beaming, slashing, weaving, and knitting.
TEXTURE: A term describing the surface effect of a fabric, such as dull, lustrous, wooly, stiff,
soft, fine, coarse, open, or closely woven; the structural quality of a fabric.
TEXTURED: An adjective used to describe continuous filament manufactured yarns (and woven
and knit fabrics made therefrom) that have been crimped or have had random loops imparted, or
that have been otherwise modified to create a different surface texture. (Also see TEXTURED
TEXTURED YARNS: Yarns that develop stretch and bulk on subsequent processing. When
woven or knitted into fabric, the cover, hand, and other aesthetics of the finished fabric better
resemble the properties of a fabric constructed from spun yarn. (Also see TEXTURING.)
1. Bulked Yarn: Qualitative term to describe a textured yarn. A bulked yarn develops more
bulk than stretch in the finished fabric.

2. Coil Yarn: A textured yarn that takes on a coil or spiral configuration when further
processed. A coil yarn can be either a torque yarn or a nontorque yarn. A coil yarn can be
formed by the false twist or edge crimp methods. Some bilateral fibers become coiled on further
3. Core-Bulked Yarn: A bulky or textured yarn composed of two sets of filaments, one of
which is straight to give dimensional stability and forms a core around and through which the
other set is coiled or looped to give bulk.
4. Crinkle Yarn: A torque-free textured yarn that is characterized by periodic wave
configurations. Crinkle yarns can be formed by the stuffer box, gear crimping, or knit-de-knit
5. Entangled Yarn: A textured yarn of one variant that develops bulk by the air-jet texturing
6. Modified Stretch Yarn: A stretch yarn that develops more bulk than usual but less bulk than
a bulked yarn in the finished fabric.
7. Nontorque Yarn: A yarn that does not rotate or kink when permitted to hang freely. A
nontorque yarn may be the result of plying two equal but opposite torque yarns.
8. Set Yarn: A textured yarn that is heat relaxed to reduce torque. Set yarns are not stretch
9. Stretch Yarn: Qualitative term to describe a textured yarn. A stretch yarn develops more
stretch than bulk in the finished fabric.
10. Torque Yarn: When a torque yarn is permitted to hang freely, it rotates or kinks to relieve
the torque introduced into the yarn during texturing.
TEXTURING: The process of crimping, imparting random loops, or otherwise modifying
continuous filament yarn to increase cover, resilience, abrasion resistance, warmth, insulation,
and moisture absorption or to provide a different surface texture. Texturing methods can be
placed roughly into six groups. (Also see TEXTURED YARNS.)
1. Air Jet Method: In this method of texturing, yarn is led through the turbulent region of an air
jet at a rate faster than it is drawn off on the far side of the jet. In the jet, the yarn structure is
opened, loops are formed, and the structure is closed again. Some loops are locked inside and
others are locked on the surface of the yarn. An example of this method is the Taslan process.
(Also see TEXTURED YARNS, Core-Bulked Yarn and Entangled Yarn.)
2. Edge Crimping Method: In this method of texturing, thermoplastic yarns in a heated and
stretched condition are drawn over a crimping edge and cooled. Edge-crimping machines are
used to make Agilon yarns. (Also see TEXTURED YARNS, Coil Yarn.)
3. False-Twist Method: This continuous method for producing textured yarns utilizes
simultaneous twisting, heat-setting, and untwisting. The yarn is taken from the supply package
and fed at controlled tension through the heating unit, through a false-twist spindle or over a
friction surface that is typically a stack of rotating discs called an aggregate, through a set of take-

up rolls, and onto a take-up package. The twist is set into the yarn by the action of the heater tube
and subsequently is removed above the spindle or aggregate resulting in a group of filaments with
the potential to form helical springs. Much higher processing speeds can be achieved with
friction false twisting than with conventional spindle false twisting. Both stretch and bulked
yarns can be produced by either process. Examples of false-twist textured yarns are Superloft®,
Flufflon®, and Helanca®. (Also see TEXTURED YARNS, Coil Yarn.)
4. Gear Crimping Method: In this texturing method, yarn is fed through the meshing teeth of
two gears. The yarn takes on the shape of the gear teeth. (Also see TEXTURED YARNS,
Crinkle Yarn.)
5. Knit-de-Knit Method: In this method of texturing, the yarn is knit into a 2-inch diameter
hose-leg, heat-set in an autoclave, and then unraveled and wound onto a final package. This
texturing method produces a crinkle yarn. (Also see TEXTURED YARNS, Crinkle Yarn.)
6. Stuffer Box Method: The crimping unit consists of two feed rolls and a brass tube stuffer
box. By compressing the yarn into the heated stuffer box, the individual filaments are caused to
fold or bend at a sharp angle, while being simultaneously set by a heating device. (Also
see TEXTURED YARNS, Crinkle Yarn.)

THERMAL CHARACTER: A tactile property of a textile material. It is the difference felt in
the temperature of the material and the skin of the person touching it.
THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY: A measure of heat flow through a material.
THERMOBONDING: A technique for bonding fibers of a web with meltable powders or fibers,
using infrared heating, hot air, or hot-calendering. (Also see BONDING, Bonding with Binder
THERMOGRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS: Analytical technique in which the rate of change in
weight of a material undergoing continuous heating versus temperature is plotted. Used in
analysis of polymers to provide information on such parameters as degree of crystallinity, glass
transition temperature, thermal stability, etc.
THERMOPLASTIC: A term used to describe a plastic material that is permanently fusible. The
term as applied to manufactured fibers describes their tendency to soften at higher temperatures.
THERMOSET: A term used to describe a plastic that, once formed, does not melt when heated.
THERMOTROPIC POLYMER: Polymer that exhibits liquid crystal formation in melt form.
In thermotropic polymers there must be a balance between having the necessary degree of
molecular perfection to preserve the liquid crystal formation and the amount of imperfection to
permit melting at workable temperatures. These polymers give high-modulus, highly oriented,
extrusion products.
THICK-AND-THIN YARN: A novelty yarn of varying thickness.
THREAD: 1. A slender, strong strand or cord, especially one designed for sewing or other
needlework. Most threads are made by plying and twisting yarns. A wide variety of thread types
are in use today, e.g., spun cotton and spun polyester, core-spun cotton with a polyester filament
core, polyester or nylon filaments (often bonded), and monofilament threads. 2. A general term
for yarns used in weaving and knitting, as in “thread count” and “warp thread”.
THREAD COUNT: 1. The number of ends and picks per inch in a woven cloth. 2. The number
of wales and courses per inch in a knit fabric.

THREADED-ROLL PROCESS: A high-speed method developed by Celanese for converting
crimped continuous filament tow into highly bulked, uniformly spread webs of up to 108-inch
widths. The webs are useful in a variety of products, such as cigarette filters, sleeping pillows,
and battings.
THREADLINES: The fiber lines of a manufactured
fiber in extrusion or subsequent processes.
THREADUP: The process of directing or threading fiber or fabric through all machine positions
to start or restart a process, or the configuration resulting therefrom.
THREE-BAR FABRIC: A tricot fabric made on a machine equipped with three guide bars.
THREE-DIMENSIONAL WEAVING: To produce three-dimensional textiles, yarns are
simultaneously woven in three directions (length, width, and thickness) rather than in the
conventional two. The types of structures that can be produced fall into four broad classes: (1)
contoured fabrics, (2) expandable fabrics, (3) interwoven fabrics (Also see DOUBLE WEAVE),
and (4) contoured interwoven fabrics.
THROUGHPUT: The amount of raw material processed in a specific time. This is the actual
amount, not a percentage.
THROWING: The operation of doubling or twisting silk or manufactured filament yarns.
THROWSTER: A company that specializes in putting additional twist in yarn. More recently,
the term also applies to a company that specializes in texturing yarns.
THRUM: The fringe of warp yarns that remains on the loom when the woven fabric has been cut
TICKING: A durable, closely woven fabric used for covering box springs, mattresses, and
pillows. Ticking may be woven in a plain, satin, or twill weave, usually with strong warp yarns
and soft filling yarns.
TIGHT or LOOSE END: A taut or slack warp end caused by too much or too little tension on
an individual end while weaving, by ridgy section or warp beams, by incorrect tensions in
beaming or sizing, or as a result of faulty fabric design.
TIME-TO-BREAK: In tensile testing, the time interval during which a specimen is under
prescribed conditions of tension and is absorbing the energy required to reach maximum load.
TINT: Coloration that produces a very pale shade. A tint usually represents the minimum
amount of color that will give perceptible appearance of coloration. In yarn processing, fugitive
tints are used for identification, then removed in wet processing.

TIP-SHEARED CARPET: A textured pile carpet similar to a random-sheared carpet, but with a
less defined surface effect.
TIRE-BUILDER FABRIC: Fabric consisting of tire cord in the warp with single yarn filling at
extended intervals.
TIRE CONSTRUCTION: The geometry of the various layers of tire fabric in the final tire.
Three constructions are commonly used.
1. Bias Tire: In this construction, tire fabric is laid alternately at bias angles of 25 to 40° to the
tread direction. An even number of layers (or piles) is used.
2. Radial Tire: In a radial tire, tire fabric traverses the body of the tire at 90° to the tread
direction. Atop the tire fabric are laid alternating narrow layers of fabric at low angles of 10 to
30° to the tread direction; the belt that is formed around the tire body restricts the movement of
the body.
3. Bias/Belted Tire: This tire construction combines features of the preceding two. The first
layers of fabric are identical to the bias tire. The belt is added in alternating layers at 20° to the
tread direction.
TIRE CORD: A textile material used to impart the flex resistance necessary for tire
reinforcement. Tire yarns of polyester, rayon, nylon, aramid, glass, or steel are twisted to 5 to 12
turns per inch. Two or more of these twisted yarns are twisted together in the opposite direction
to obtain a cabled tire cord. The twist level required depends on the material, the yarn linear
density, and the particular application of the cord. Normally, tire cords are twisted to about the
same degree in the S and Z directions, which means that the net effect is almost zero twist in the
finished cord. (Also see TIRE FABRIC.)
TIRE FABRIC: A loose fabric woven to facilitate large-scale dipping, treating, and calendering
of tire cords. Usually, 15 to 35 tire cords per inch of warp are woven into a tire fabric by 2 to 5
light filling yarns per inch. In these fabrics, the strength is in the warp and the filling only holds
cords in position for processing. The filling yarns are normally broken during tire molding. The
warp cords are polyester, rayon, nylon, aramid, glass, or steel and range in strength from 30
pounds to over 100 pounds per cord. A 60-inch fabric would normally have a warp strength of
about 7,000 pounds. Such fabrics are used for tire carcasses and tire belts. More conventional
square woven fabrics are used in certain parts of a tire such as the bead, chafer, and wrapping.
(Also see TIRE CORD.)

TITANIUM DIOXIDE: A compound (TiO2) that occurs naturally in three different forms
(rutile, anatase, and brookite). It is used chiefly as a pigment or delusterant in paint or fiber.
TOBACCO CLOTH: A thin, lightweight, open cloth used to shade and protect tobacco plants.
TOE CLOSING: In knitting hosiery, this term refers to closing the toe opening. It may be knit
closed, or in tube hosiery, sewn closed.
TOILE: 1. A broad term describing many simple plain weave twill fabrics, especially those made
from linen. 2. Sheer cotton and linen fabrics.
TONGUE TEAR STRENGTH: The average force required to tear a rectangular sample with a
cut in the edge at the center of the shorter side. The two tongues are gripped in a tensile tester
and the force required to continue and tear is measured.
TOP: 1. A wool sliver that has been combed to straighten the fibers and to remove short fiber; an
intermediate stage in the production of worsted yarn. 2. A similar untwisted strand of
manufactured staple delivered by the comb or made directly from tow.
TOP COLORS: Colors used on the ground color to form a design.
TOP DYEING: 1. The process of covering with an additional dye, not necessarily of the same
color or class, to obtain the desired shade. 2. Fiber in top form is placed in cans and dyed in a
batch-dye vessel with reverse cycling capability. An expensive process that is used primarily for
fancy yarns.
TORQUE: A force or a combination of forces that produces or tends to produce a twisting or
rotating motion. In reference to yarn, torque refers to the yarn’s tendency to turn on itself, or
kink, as a result of twisting.
TOTAL DENIER (OF TOW): The product of the denier per filament times the number of
filaments in a tow.
TOUGHNESS: 1. Ability of a material to endure large deformations without rupture. 2. The
actual work per unit mass required to rupture a fiber or a yarn.
TOW: A large strand of continuous manufactured fiber filaments without definite twist, collected
in loose, rope-like form, usually held together by crimp. Tow is the form that most manufactured
fiber reaches before being cut into staple. It is often processed on tow-conversion machinery into
tops, sliver, or yarn, or on tow-opening equipment to make webs for various uses.
TRANSESTERIFICATION: In the production of polyester from dimethyl terephthalate and
ethylene glycol, the process of exchanging ethylene glycol for the methyl groups to obtain bis-â-
hydroxyethyl terephthalate. The methanol generated in the reaction is removed as it is formed to
drive the reaction to completion.
TRANSFER TAIL: A long end of yarn wound at the base of a
package that permits increased warping or transfer efficiency by

providing an easily accessible connecting point for the succeeding package.
TRANSITION TEMPERATURE: A temperature at which some radical change, usually a
phase change, in the appearance or structure of a substance occurs. Examples of transition
temperatures are melting point, boiling point, and second-order transition temperature.
TRAPPED END: An end that is unable to unwrap or unwind from the beam. Trapping of an end
may be prolonged or intermittent depending upon the cause of trapping (e.g., rolled ends at the
selvage, short ends, or mechanical difficulties).
TRAVELER: A C-shaped, metal clip that revolves around the ring on a ring spinning frame. It
guides the yarn onto the bobbin as twist is inserted into the yarn.
TRAVERSE LENGTH: The lateral distance between the points of reversal of the wind on a
yarn package.
TREE BARK: A term describing the rippled or wavy effect sometimes
seen when a bonded fabric is stretched in the horizontal (widthwise)
direction. This defect is caused by bias tensions present when two
distorted or skewed fabrics are bonded.
TRIACETATE FIBER: A manufactured fiber produced from cellulose
triacetate in the forms of filament yarn, staple, and tow. Cellulose
triacetate fiber differs from acetate fiber in that during its manufacture
the cellulose is completely acetylated whereas acetate, which is diacetate,
is only partially acetylated. The FTC notes that a fiber may be called
triacetate when not less than 92% of the hydroxyl groups are acetylated.
Fabrics of triacetate have higher heat resistance than acetate fabrics and
can be safely ironed at higher temperatures. Triacetate fabrics that have
been properly heat-set (usually after dyeing) have improved ease-of-care
characteristics because of a change in the crystalline structure of the
fiber. (Also see ACETATE FIBER.)
TRIACETIN: Glycerol triacetate. A type of plasticizer for acetate fibers. It is widely used to
add firmness to cigarette filter rods.
TRIAXIAL FABRICS: Completely isotropic fabrics made in a weaving
process employing three yarns at 60° angles to each other. These fabrics
have no stretch or distortion in any direction. With equal sizes and
number of yarns in all three directions, the fabric approaches equal
strength and stiffness in all directions.
TRICOT: A generic term for the most common type of warp-knit fabric. It has fine wales on the
face and coursewise ribs on the back. It can be made in a plain jersey construction or in meshes,
stripes, and many other designs. Tricot is usually made of triacetate, acetate, polyester, nylon, or
rayon. (Also see JERSEY and KNITTING, 1.)

TRICOT BEAM: A metal flanged beam, commonly 42 inches in width, on which yarn is wound
for use as a supply for the tricot machine.
TRICOT FABRIC YIELD: The number of square yards per pound of greige or finished tricot
TRIMER: A polymer consisting of three monomer units. (Also see CYCLIC TRIMER.)
TRISKELION CROSS SECTION: A trilobal cross section in which the radiating arms are
curved or bent. (Also see CROSS SECTION.)
TRISTIMULUS VALUES: In shade matching during dyeing, these values represent the amount
of each of the three primary colors that, when mixed additively, will generate the desired shade.
TRUE TENSILE STRENGTH: The maximum tensile stress expressed in force per unit area of
the specimen at the time of rupture. (Also see TENSILE STRENGTH.)
TUBE: 1. A cylindrical holder or bobbin used as a core for a cylindrical yarn package. 2. A
cylindrical yarn package.
TUBING: A woven, knit, or braided fabric of cylindrical form, having a width of over 4 inches.
TUBULAR FABRIC: A fabric woven or knit in a tube form with no seams, such as seamless
pillowcases, some knit underwear fabrics, and seamless hosiery. (Also see CIRCULAR-KNIT
TUCK STITCH: A knitting stitch made when a needle receives a new yarn without losing its old
TUFT: 1. A cluster of soft yarns drawn through a fabric and projecting from the surface in the
form of cut yarns or loops. 2. The portion of pile-like material that comprises a tufted fabric or
carpet. (Also see TUFTED FABRIC and TUFTED CARPET.)
TUFTED CARPET: Carpet produced by a tufting machine instead of a loom. It is an outgrowth
of hand-tufted bedspreads. Today, broadloom tufting machines produce over 90% of all domestic
carpeting. Tufting machines are essentially multineedle sewing machines that push the pile yarns
through a primary backing fabric and hold them in place to form loops
as the needles are withdrawn. The loops are then either released for
loop-pile carpets or cut for cut-pile carpets. The pile yarns may be
either predyed or uncolored, in which case, the greige carpet is then
piece-dyed or printed. In either case, a latex or other binding agent is
applied to the backstitch to lock the tufts in place and to secure the
secondary backing fabric. Formerly, all carpets were woven, either by
hand or machine. The significantly greater productivity of tufting has

revolutionized the carpet industry and made soft floor coverings available to the mass market.
TUFTED FABRIC: Cotton sheeting, lightweight duck, or other fabric decorated with fluffy tufts
of multiple-ply, soft-twist cotton yarns or manufactured fiber yarns closely arranged in
continuous lines or spaced at intervals to produce the type of fabric called candlewick. The tufts
are inserted and cut by machine in previously woven fabric or are woven in by the loom and
afterwards cut to form the tufts. They have a chenille-like softness and bulk and are erroneously
called chenille. Patterns vary from simple straight lines and elaborate designs to completely
covered materials resembling long pile fabrics. The may be white, solid colored, or multicolored.
Tufted fabrics are used for bedspreads, bath mats, and robes, etc.
TULLE: A fine, very lightweight, machine-made net usually having a hexagonal mesh effect.
Tulle is used in ballet costumes and veils.
TURBIDITY: The decrease in optical transparency of a solution because of the presence of
particulate matter.
TURN: The distance parallel to the axis of a yarn or rope in which a strand makes one complete
spiral. (Also see TWIST.)
TURNED-OVER EDGE: A curled selvage.
TWEED: An irregular, soft, flexible, unfinished, shaggy wool or wool-blend fabric made with a
2/2 twill weave. Tweeds are used in all types of coat fabrics and suitings.
TWILL WEAVE: A fundamental weave characterized by diagonal lines produced by a series of
floats staggered in the warp direction. The floats are normally formed by filling (filling-faced
twill). A warp-face twill is a weave in which the warp yarns produce the diagonal effect.
TWILO PROCESS: A spinning process in which yarn is made by binding fibers with an
adhesive, then removing the adhesive after the yarn is made into fabric.
TWINE: 1. A plied yarn made form medium-twist single yarns with ply twist in the opposite
direction. 2. A single-strand yarn, usually 3 or 4 millimeters in diameter, made of hard fibers,
such as henequen, sisal, abaca, or phormium, and sufficiently stiff to perform satisfactorily on a
mechanical grain binder.
TWIST: The number of turns about its axis per unit of length of a yarn or other textile strand.
Twist is expressed as turns per inch (tpi), turns per meter (tpm), or turns per centimeter (tpcm).

TWIST, DIRECTION OF: The direction of twist in yarns and
other textile strands is indicated by the capital letters S and Z. Yarn
has S-twist if when it is held vertically, the spirals around its central
axis slope in the same direction as the middle portion of the letter S,
and Z-twist if they slope in the same direction as the middle portion
of the letter Z. When two or more yarns, either single or plied, are
twisted together, the letters S and Z are used in a similar manner to
indicate the direction of the last twist inserted.
TWISTING: 1. The process of combining filaments into yarn by
twisting them together or combining two or more parallel singles
yarns (spun or filament) into plied yarns or cords. Cables are made
by twisting plied yarns or cords. Twisting is also employed to
increase strength, smoothness, and uniformity, or to obtain novelty effects in yarn. 2. A very high
level of twist is added to single or plied yarns to make crepe yarns. This operation generally is
called creping or throwing. 3. The process of adding twist to a filament yarn to hold the filaments
together for ease in subsequent textile processing, etc.
TWIST MULTIPLIER: The ratio of turns per inch to the square root of the yarn count.
TWIST SETTING: A process for fixing twist in yarns to deaden torque and eliminate kinking
during further processing. There are several methods that use steam to condition the packages of
TWIT: A short section of real twist in false-twist yarn that prevents crimp development and
hence causes a pinhole effect in fabric. Also called twist bleed or tight spot.
TWO-FOR-ONE TWISTER: A twister that inserts twist at a rate of twice the spindle speed.
For example, at a spindle speed of 2,000 rpm, 4,000 turns per minute are inserted in the yarn.


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