Saturday, August 6, 2011

Complete Textile Glossery (I to J)

Learn Apparel Merchandising, Learn Fashion design.
IMBIBITION: A measure of the liquid or water-holding capacity of a textile material.
IMMEDIATE ELASTIC DEFORMATION: Recoverable deformation that is essentially
independent of time, i.e., occurring in (a time approaching) zero time and recoverable in (a time
approaching) zero time after removal of the applied load.
IMPACT RESISTANCE: 1. The resistance of a material to fracture by a blow, expressed in
terms of the amount of energy absorbed before fracture. 2. In yarn or cord, the ability to withstand
instantaneous or rapid rate of loading.
IMPREGNATED FABRIC: A fabric in which the interstices between the yarns are completely
filled, as compared to sized or coated material where the interstices are not completely filled. Not
included in the definition is a woven fabric constructed from impregnated yarns, rather than one
impregnated after weaving.
INDEX OF REFRACTION: Ratio of the velocity of light in one medium to its velocity in a
second medium as the light passes from medium to medium. If a medium is crystalline, the
velocity may depend on the direction of the light with respect to the crystalline axes and the
substance may have several indexes of refraction, i.e., it may be birefringent. (Also see
INDIGO: Originally, a natural blue vat dye extracted from plants, especially the Indigofera
tinctoria plant. Most indigo dyes today are synthetic. They are frequently used on dungarees and
INDUSTRIAL FABRIC: A broad term for fabrics used for nonapparel and nondecorative uses.
They fall into several classes: (1) a broad group including fabrics employed in industrial
processes (e.g., filtering, polishing, and absorption), (2) fabrics combined with other materials to
produce a different type of product (e.g., rubberized fabric for hose, belting, and tires; fabric
combined with synthetic resins to be used for timing gears and electrical machinery parts; coated
or enameled fabrics for automobile tops and book bindings; and fabrics impregnated with
adhesive and dielectric compounds for application in the electrical industry), and (3) fabrics
incorporated directly in a finished product (e.g., sails, tarpaulins, tents, awnings, and specialty
belts for agricultural machinery, airplanes, and conveyors). Fabrics developed for industrial uses
cover a wide variety of widths, weights, and constructions and are attained, in many cases, only
after painstaking research and experiment. Cotton and manufactured fibers are important fibers
in this group, but virtually all textile fibers have industrial uses. The names mechanical fabrics or
technical fabrics sometimes have been applied to certain industrial fabrics.
INFLATABLE STUCTURES: Structures opened or enlarged by input of air and, once enlarged,
able to retain the air to maintain the distended position.

INFLOW QUENCH: Cooling air for extruded polymer filaments that is directed radially inward
across the path of the filaments. The threadline is completely enclosed in a quench cabinet in
inflow quenching.
INHERENT FLAME RESISTANCE: As applied to textiles, flame
resistance that derives from an essential characteristic of the fiber from which
the textile is made.
INHIBITOR: A substance that retards or prevents a chemical or physical
change. In textiles, a chemical agent that is added to prevent fading,
degradation, or other undesirable effects.
INITIAL MODULUS: The slope of the initial straight portion of the stressstrain
curve. The modulus is the ratio of the change in stress, expressed in
newtons per tex, grams-force per tex, or grams-force per denier, to the change in strain expressed
as a fraction of the original length.
INITIATOR: A chemical added to start a reaction such as polymerization. Unlike catalysts,
initiators may be consumed during the reaction.
INSPECTION: The process of examining textiles for defects at any stage of manufacturing and
INSTRON TENSILE TESTER: A high precision electronic test instrument designed for testing
a variety of material under a broad range of test conditions. It is used to measure and chart the
load-elongation properties of fibers, yarns, fabrics, webbings, plastics, films, rubber, leather,
paper, etc. May also be used to measure such properties as tear resistance and resistance to
INTAGLIO: 1. Printing style in which the design is cut into the surface of the cylinder and is
thus below the surface. 2. A lustrous, brocade pattern knitted in a tricot fabric.
INTENSITY: 1. The amount of energy per unit (space, charge, time). 2. The brilliance of a
color. 3. The brightness of light.
INTERFACIAL POLYMERIZATION: Polymerization in which two reactive monomers, each
dissolved in different solvents that are mutually immiscible, react at the interface between the two
INTERLINING: A padding or stiffening fabric used in garment manufacture to provide shape
retention. Interlining is sandwiched between layers of fabric.

INTERLOCK KNIT: To produce an interlock knit, long and short
needles are arranged alternately in both the dial and cylinder; the
needles in the dial and cylinder are also positioned in direct alignment.
When the long and short needles knit in alternate feeds in both needle
housings, a fabric with a type of cross 1 x 1 rib effect is produced.
INTERMINGLING: 1. Use of air jets to create turbulence to entangle
the filaments of continuous filaments yarns, without forming loops,
after extrusion. Provides dimensional stability and cohesion for further
processing but is not of itself a texturing process. It is compatible with
high-speed spin-drawing and high-speed take-up. When compared with twisting processes, it
also permits increased take-up package size. 2. Combining two or more yarns via an
intermingling jet. Can be used to get special effect yarns, i.e., mixing dye variants to get heather
effects upon subsequent dyeing.
INTERMITTENT PATTERN: A pattern occurring in interrupted sequence.
INTERNAL DYE VARIABILITY: The change from point to point in dye uniformity across the
diameter and along the length of the individual filaments. Affects appearance of the dyed product
and is a function of fiber, dye, dyeing process, and dyebath characteristics.
INTERNATIONAL GRAY SCALE: A scale distributed through AATCC that is used as a
comparison standard to rate degrees of fading from 5 (negligible or no change) to 1 (severe
change). The term is sometimes applied to any scale of quality in which 5 is excellent and 1 is
INTIMATE BLEND: A technique of mixing two or more dissimiliar fibers in a very uniform
mixture. Usually the stock is mixed before or at the picker.
INTRINSIC VISCOSITY: Ratio of the specific viscosity (R.V.-1) of a solution of known
concentration to the concentration of solute extrapolated to zero concentration. Also called the
limiting viscosity number. It is directly proportional to the polymer-average molecular weight.
IONOMER: A polymer having covalent bonds between the constituents of the long-chain
molecules and ionic bonds between the chains.
ISLANDS-IN-THE-SEA: A type of component fiber described as multipleinterface
or filament-in-matrix. The “island” are fibrils of one or more polymers
imbedded in the “sea” (or matrix) consisting of another polymer. The matrix is
often dissolved away to leave filaments of very low denier per filament. These

fibers have been used in ion-exchange products and in imitation fur products as well as to
produce textile products with a different hand.
ISOTACTIC POLYMER: A polymer structure in which there is a regular spatial or stereo
relationship from one repeat unit to the next. (Also see ATACTIC POLYMER,
ISOTHERM: Constant temperature line used on graphs of climatic conditions or thermodynamic
relations, such as pressure-volume relations at constant temperature.
ISOTROPIC: Having the same physical properties in every direction in the plane of a fabric. It
is related to the random distribution of fibers in nonwoven manufacture.

JACK: 1. A blade having high and/or low butts used to actuate the movement of latch knitting
needles. 2. Part of a dobby head designed to serve as a lever in the operation of the harness of a
JACKET: 1. A woven or felted tubular sleeve for covering and shrinking on a machine roll. 2.
A short coat. 3. In polymer manufacture, an external shell around a reaction vessel. For example,
jacketed vessels are used when heat-transfer medium is circulated around the vessel.
JACQUARD: A system of weaving that utilizes a highly versatile pattern mechanism to permit
the production of large, intricate designs. The weave pattern is achieved by a series of punched
cards. Each card perforation controls the action of one warp thread for the passage of one pick.
The machine may carry a large number of cards, depending upon the design, because there is a
separate card for each pick in the pattern. Jacquard weaving is used for tapestry, brocade,
damask, brocatelle, figured necktie and dress fabrics, and some floor coverings. A similar device
is used for the production of figured patterns on some knit goods.
JASPÉ: 1. A fabric used for suiting, draperies, or upholstery characterized by a series of faint
stripes formed by dark, medium, and light yarns of the same color. 2. A term describing carpets
having a faint striped effect.
J-BOX: A J-shaped holding device used in continuous
operations to provide varying amounts of intermediate
material storage such as in wet processing of fabrics and in
tow production. The material is fed to the top and pleated
to fill the long arm before being withdrawn from the short
J-CUT: In tufting cut-pile carpet constructions, uneven
cutting of the loops caused by poor adjustment of knives
and hooks or excessive tension.
JEAN: Cotton twill fabric, similar to denim, but lighter and finer, in a 2/1 weave for sportswear
and linings.
JERSEY: 1. A circular-knit or flat-knit fabric made with a
plain stitch in which the loops intermesh in only one direction.
As a result, the appearance of the face and the back of a jersey
fabric is wholly different. 2. A tricot fabric made with a simple
stitch, characterized by excellent drape and wrinkle recovery

JET: 1. A device used to bulk yarns by introducing curls, coils, and loops that are formed by the
action of a high velocity stream, usually of air or steam. (Also see TEXTURING, Air Jet
Method.) 2. See SPINNERET.
JET DYEING MACHINE: A high-temperature piecedyeing
machine that circulates the dye liquor through a
Venturi jet, thus imparting a driving force to move the
fabric. The fabric, in rope form, is sewn together to form a
JET LOOM: A shuttleless loom that employs a jet of
water or air to carry the filling yarn through the shed.
JIG: A machine in which fabric in open width-form is transferred
repeatedly from one roller to another, passing each time through a bath of
relatively small volume. Jigs are used for scouring, dyeing, bleaching,
and finishing.
JUTE: A bast fiber used for sacking, burlap, and twine as a backing
material for tufted carpets.
JUTE BUTT: The flaggy lower end of jute fiber that is cut off in
preparing jute for market. The fibers are 0.4 to 1 inch in length. Jute butts are used in twines and
coarse bagging.
JUTE COUNT: The weight in pounds of a spindle of 14,400 yards of yarn.


No comments:

Post a Comment

Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...